Difference between revisions of "Orenstia"
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Revision as of 19:38, 28 June 2020
Republic of the Union of Orenstia
Motto: L'union fait la força (de-jure)
"Unity makes strength"
Location of Orenstia (dark green)
|Location||Orenstia (dark green)|
|Official languages||None at federal level|
|Recognised national languages|
|Government||Federal directorial socialist republic|
|Kristjan Aavika (President)|
|Legislature||Congress of People's Deputies|
• Orenstian Republic formed
• Monarchy abolished
• Socialist federation proclaimed
• First elections held
|1,665,077 km2 (642,890 sq mi)|
|187.03/km2 (484.4/sq mi)|
• Per capita
|Currency||Orenstian Tolar (OTR)|
The Republic of the Union of Orenstia, commonly known as Orenstia, the Republic of the Union, or as the Second Orenstian Republic, is a sovereign state located in northeast Levantia. Covering an area of 1,665,077 km², the republic is bordered by the Deric States to the south, Fiannria to the north, and the Levantine Ocean to the east. The nation is a democratic socialist federation comprising of 5 republics; Karva, Keskimaa, Varska, Iuhra and Samia - with its capital in the city of Cered. As a country it is heavily decentralized; with its constituent republics managing their own affairs while the federal government plays a limited role in domestic governance.
Although human history on eastern Levantia stretches for decades, modern Orenstia was founded in 1857 following the union of four Uralic republics into the unified Orenstian Republic. It constituted the first union between the Uralic peoples of Levantia, following centuries of influence from the Latin states to the south, and Fiannria from the north. The death of State-General Stephen Vaarik in 1915 would lead to turmoil in the republic, as the rise of his successor would grow the power of the nation's aristocracy, much against the wishes of the largely liberal working-class population. A major crop failure in 1926 would be the tipping point; sparking a socialist revolution and a bloody civil war, further fanning the flames of revolution in the neighbouring states of Dericania. A socialist federation was proclaimed in Cered in 1935, although the new government secretly began talks with Urcea to refrain from participating in the Third Fratricide in exchange for its independence. Under the mandate to develop and ensure the continuation of socialism in Orenstia, the republic was led by the League of Socialists as a single party state until the end of the Great War, when the nation finally held its first elections.
Today, Orenstia is a directorial socialist republic, led by the collective National Council. It is a regional power with a growing economy and increasing civil liberties. It is one of the world's largest exporters and importers. Although the nation remains socialist, reforms reducing the control of the central government over the economy proved successful, with the nation's markets dominated by state-owned and collectively-owned cooperatives operating on a profit basis and an increasing number of privately-owned businesses. As a highly developed nation, Orenstia offers social security, welfare, healthcare, a minimum basic income and free higher education. Orenstia is also a member of numerous international organzations, sharing close relations with both Levantine and Sarpedonian states, and participates in Operation Khyzer Rhykh.
- 1 History
- 2 Politics and government
- 3 Geography
- 4 Economy
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Infrastructure
- 7 Education
- 8 Culture
- 9 See also
Human settlement of the area now known as modern Orenstia began 300,000 years ago. Uralic society originally began on the southern banks of the Ural River in what is now northern Varska. By the conclusion of the region's prehistoric period, much of eastern Levantia, from the Vandarch to Varska, was dominated by Uralic societies. These polities were largely divided and frequently engaged in conflict with one another until 400BC, when a mass Latinic invasion from the south would push the peoples of the many Uralic polities into what is now modern-day Orenstia.
From the dawn of the first century onwards, the many Uralic polities were ruled by client kings loyal to Great Levantia, facilitating the spread of Latin systems, culture and religion, with Christianity becoming prevalent across the peninsula by the fall of Great Levantia. In 753, the now independent states of the peninsula were conquered by Conchobar I of the Holy Levantine Empire. Reorganized into four stem duchies corresponding to rough ethnic boundaries, the land of Orenstia was incorporated fully into the Holy Levantine Empire. The reformation of the Empire in the first half of 900s allowed the two eastern duchies, Varska and Karva, now kingdoms, to declare independence.
In 1098, a major uprising occured in Karva. With the Kingdom of Karva unable to quell the rebellion and quickly losing favour of the HLE and the Church, King Andris II of Varska marshalled the vast Varskan army to crush the rebellion and to conquer Karva, uniting the peninsula east of the Sopron mountains. He was crowned as the first king of the Confederal Kingdom of Varskans and Karvans by the Emperor of the Levantines in 1100. Although a nominal confederation of equals, the Confederal Kingdom was ruled by the Varskan ___ dynasty, whose kings held the title of King of Varska, King of Karva and the King of the Confederal Kingdom concurrently. In 1522, King Andris VI was succeeded by his son, Alexander I. He became known as "Alexander the Unifier", conquering and uniting the kingdoms of Keskimaa and Iuhra by 1540.
As confederal governance weakened after the death of Alexander, the Kingdom of Iuhra began to openly suggest the possibility of secession. This was viewed with great contempt from the seat of the monarchy in Versend, although the confederation was long since weakened from corruption and internal turmoil and unable to respond. Reforms to keep the confederation united were adopted in 1627, granting more autonomy to each nation and restoring the monarchies of Karva, Iuhra and Keskimaa as "equals" with the Varskan confederal monarchy. These reforms failed; leading to the dissolution of the confederation in 1644 as conflict erupted peninsula-wide.
Although the states remained divided for over two hundred years, the concept of Orenstia would emerge again in the early 1800s through the Felszian Movement. Sparked by a wave of nationalism spreading across the continent and with imperial influence declining, the Felszian Movement called for the union of the four states into one, independent state.
The nations unite into the Orenstian Republic, a federal state
New colonialism in Audonia sometime here, golden age of Orenstia.
Stephen dies, things go to shit.
New State-General oppresses the people.
Orenstian Civil War (1926-1933)
The Orenstian Civil War began in earnest with the March Revolution of 1926. Led by a shaky united front of communists, social democrats, syndicalists and democratic socialists, the front's original Kuressi uprising would soon sweep across the urban centres of the nation. State-General Alexander Igarik did not relent amid calls for his resignation, instead beginning a violent crackdown nation-wide. This aggravated the existing tensions between the dominant Varska and the other constituent states, leading to the governments of Karva and Iuhra declaring a new Provisional Socialist Orenstia with its Worker's Army in April of that year.
League of Socialists
Transition to democracy
Republic of the Union
Politics and government
The Republic of the Union of Orenstia is a directorial socialist federal republic, comprised of equal federal subjects in a symmetric federation. It is a representative democracy with traditions of social justice and egalitarianism. After the abolition of single-party rule, national power has been decentralized with high levels of autonomy given to individual republics. The federal government is heavily executive-led.
The National Council is the nation's collective executive presidency. The non-partisan council is comprised of five equal members, each one indirectly elected from each republic for an 8 year term. The ceremonial role of President of Orenstia is rotated through the members of the council annually. The council holds the power to sign legislative bills into law, to nominate the Federal Cabinet, to dissolve the Congress of People's Deputies, to issue executive orders, to grant federal pardons, and to act on behalf of the Supreme National Dome. While in theory the 2570-member Dome is the ultimate authority of state; the Council’s task of representing the Dome, except for the two weeks it is in session, grants it far-reaching de-facto powers. Today, the sessions of the Supreme National Dome are considered a formality; it largely approves the work of the Council, the Congress and the courts, although the Dome has on occasion impeached members and continues to hold the power to dissolve all three bodies. Dome members are elected through both non-partisan local and union elections and sortition for a five-year term.
The unicameral Congress of People's Deputies is the nation's legislature. It is comprised of 1000 deputies, 500 elected by the governments of the republics at large, and 500 elected on the basis of providing one deputy for each geographical area of 600 thousand people. The Congress of People's Deputies, however, is functionally bicameral. A majority of both republican and geographical deputies must be attained to pass legislation. With a 75% supermajority vote it may also propose constitutional changes, although they must be unanimously approved by the legislatures of each republic. The President pro tempore of the Congress of People’s Deputies is the speaker.
The supreme law of Orenstia is the Socialist Constitution of 1953, which establishes a federal multi-party democracy under the framework of a socialist state. It explicitly prevents rule by a single-party. It guarantees fundamental rights and freedoms that cannot be overruled or amended by any government, although a notwithstanding clause allows the National Council (with unanimous consent from the executives of atleast 3 of the republics) to suspend certain sections of the constitution for up to 6 months.
The nation's judiciary, consisting of the Federation Court and the Constitutional Court, plays an important role in federal governance. The Constitutional Court maintains the power to overturn both National Council and Congress decisions, while the Federation Court plays a large role in interpreting legislation. Each republic nominates one justice to each of the two courts, with their nominations subject to approval by the National Council.
A socialist common law prevails in all parts of Orenstia, with criminal law a responsiblity of the federal government and is uniform nationwide. Law enforcement, however, remains the sole reponsibility of republic governments, and are conducted by municipal and republic police forces.
Federal politics in Orenstia has been historically dominated by the big tent Party of Democratic Socialism, which enjoyed constant electoral success for the first 40 years of democracy. It is now challenged by the Social Democratic Party, although it has only formed government once in the last 22 years. The two major parties practice a form of brokerage politics, and share similar liberal societal views. The PDS positions itself in the centre-left of the economic spectrum, while the SDP occupies the centre-right. Currently, four parties had representatives elected to the Congress of People's Deputies in the 2016 elections - with the Party of Democratic Socialism forming government in Congress, opposed by the Social Democratic Party, the International Workers of Orenstia, and the Progressives.
At a federal level, Orenstia is a representative democracy with a moderate political culture of social justice and equality. Far-left or far-right viewpoints have never been a major force in Orenstian politics. The nation's current two-party system was formalized in the 1995 Cape Arrangement, which was a written guarantee between the PDS and the SDP to respect election results, to uphold Orenstian socialism, and to further pan-Orenstianism. This arrangement has led to a lack of pluralism in governance and the effective enshrinement of a two-party system. This dominance of two similar parties has led to Orenstia’s classification as a flawed democracy with authoritarian tendencies. Although the domestic wing of the once-feared Commission for the Preservation of the Republic (CPR) has been largely disbanded, nationalist and Marxist-Leninist factions remain banned from gaining power by the constitution, with media self-censorship continuing to this day.
Internally, the Orenstian federation is divided into nine federal subjects, with five constituent socialist republics (The Socialist Republic of Orohad acts as a constituent portion of the Socialist Federal Republic of Varska), two federal districts and a city of federal importance. Since the conclusion of single-party rule, great power has been delegated to each constituent republic, although defence, foreign relations and other such responsibilities continue to fall under the jurisdiction of Cered. Each constituent republic is governed by a presidential system similar to that of the federal system, although there is a de-emphasis on collective leadership. Federal districts are governed directly by the federal government.
In increasing order of population, the republics are:
|Name||Capital||Flag||Coat of arms||Population||Location|
|Socialist Federative Republic of Varska||Versend||111,960,000
|Socialist Republic of Karva||Kuressi|
|Socialist Republic of Iuhra||Porva|
|Socialist Republic of Keskimaa||Trondstrøm|
|Socialist Republic of Samia||Inari|
Since the fall of single-party rule, Orenstia’s international relations have been based on Article 16 of the Socialist Constitution: establishing self-determination, diplomacy and cooperation as the fundamental principles on how the Orenstian state should interacts with other countries and organizations. As such, it maintains diplomatic relations with every League of Nations member state. According to the Constitution, the President of Orenstia acts as the nation’s chief diplomat, although the task commonly falls to the entirety of the National Council. Today, Orenstia's foreign policy is largely based on the guidelines laid out by the New Foreign Policy for the 21st Century, manifested in the nation’s long-term Look West, Act East policy.
The Federal People's Army is the armed forces of the Republic of the Union. It is divided into the Federal People's Ground Forces, the Federal People's Navy, the Federal People's Air Force, the Federal People's Strategic Forces and the People's National Guard. Defence spending makes up 2% of the Orenstian gross domestic product. As of 2018, the military comprises almost a million active duty servicemembers, with over 3 million in reserve. It is mandatory for all citizens 18-35 to be drafted into the armed forces (or the national services) for 12 to 15 months.
Although greatly decreased since the conclusion of the Occidental Cold War, Orenstia continues to maintain one of the largest military forces on the continent. The nation maintains a stockpile of nuclear weapons, a growing force of strategic bombers and a major tank force. In recent years, naval spending has also increased; leading to the creation of a large surface navy and a growing fleet of nuclear submarines. The country has a large and fully indigenous arms industry, with relatively little imports. It has been one of the world's top supplier of arms since 2015.
Situated at the eastern end of Levantia, Orenstia is located on the Orenstian Peninsula and the Varskan Plain. The country totals 1,665,077 kilometres squared, making it the 11th largest country in the world. It is largely dominated by a flat, temperate plain which stretches the entire height of the nation. The most common division of the country is across the Ural River. The Ural flows through the centre of Orenstia, with almost the entirety of the nation laying in its drainage basin. Iuhra and western Orenstia is largely dominated by the Sopron Range, a primarily hilly region varied by low mountains. The nation's highest point is contained within, at 912m above sea level. A variety of rivers also originate from the area. These rivers comprise the largest natural features in southern Varska and Keskimaa.
Orenstia is situated in the north of the temperate climate zone, with the east of the country in the transition area between maritime and continental climates. It has four seasons of approximately equal length. Average temperatures in northern Samia range from 16.1°C in July to -6°C in February, while temperatures along the southern coast of the nation range from 21.9°C in July to 1°C in February. Snow covers much of Orenstia from mid-December to early March.
With a population of 311.4 million in 2018 and with an expected population of 312.8 million by 2019, Orenstia is the 4th largest nation on Levantia, and the 14th largest nation in the world. Its population density stands at 187.03 per kilometres squared, with an overall life expectancy of 77.4 years. Since the 2010s, Orenstia's population growth rate has slowed to less than 1%. As such, the nation is considered to be in stage 4 of demographic transition. With both birth and death rates low, the government has turned to enacting a variety of pro-natalist policies, although the main driver of population growth today is the nation's nascent immigration programs.
Orenstia is considered a "rainbow nation", home to multiple nations and a multitude of nationalities and ethnicities. Its political, economic and social policies continue to reflect that; affirmative action programs remain in force, and discrimination based on national or ethnic lines is illegal. Although immigration remains limited, it has increased signficantly in recent years. Today, a majority of Orenstian immigrants originate from Audonia or Alshar, with a smaller number of Sarpedonian and Levantine immigrants.
A majority of the nation's urban centres are aligned along rivers, with population centres primarily situated along the Ural, Krtìn and Vantaa rivers. As well, a rapidly growing urbanization rate has inflated the urban population greatly; with Orenstia now home to two megacities. Varska is by far the most urbanized republic in the federation, although Keskimaa and Karva follow close behind.
|Largest cities of Orenstia |
Federal Census estimates for 2038
|Rank||City name||Republic||Pop.||Rank||City name||Republic||Pop.|
|4||Cape Town||Cape Town||7,891,000||14||Kyröskoski||Keskimaa||1,199,000|
Orenstia recognizes two types of groups, nations and nationalities. The former constitutes the self-identified "national and cultural origin" of the constituent Uralic peoples, while the latter constitutes other ethnic groups such as Latins, or sub-national nationalities such as Karelians. There are over 31 ethnic groups recognized by the federal government, while there are only six national groups recognized. The 2010 census recorded 31% of the population as nationally Varskan, 23% Karvan, 22% Iuhran, 9% Keskimaan, 8% Sami and 7% Orenstian. The percentage of the population identifying as "Orenstian" has increased in recent years due to immigration and an increase in the mixed-ethnicity population. This has developed what some consider a culturally homogenous Orenstian identity in the nation's urban centres.
Ethnic and national tensions in Orenstia today remain relatively non-existent. Since the conclusion of single-party rule, each successive democratic government has made strides to reinforce the federalism enshrined in the Socialist Constitution. These strides include a system of affirmative action, a system of national education, anti-discrimination laws, the promotion of a united Orenstian identity, and even the amending of the constitution itself to ban nationalist factions from taking power in the federal government. These concerted efforts have been widely regarded as successful with reconciling with the past, and creating a framework to ensure that tensions continue to remain low in the future. It must be said that ethnic tensions do still remain, and are predominant in some western and rural areas of the union.
Orenstian citizenship is typically obtained by birth in Orenstia (jus soli), or when at least one biological or adoptive parent is an Orenstian citizen born in Orenstia or is naturalized (jus sanguinis). It is also granted to immigrants who have resided in the country for at least 4 years. Orenstia does not restrict dual citizenship, although citizens are recommended to travel abroad on their Orenstian passport.
Although no official language is recognized at the federal level, Orenstia recognizes 6 national languages; Varskan, Sami, Iuhrian, Keskimaan, Karvan, and English. While all 6 languages hold and are conferred nominally equal status; Varskan serves as the nation's lingua franca, and is taught as a second language in the Orenstian educational system. Although Varskan is the mother tongue of only a quarter of Orenstians, over 80% of the population can speak it. English, in recent years, has taken a more prominent position in the country, being recognized as the unofficial language of science and international commerce.
With the growth of the nation's immigrant population, a variety of minority languages have also been reognized by local and republic authorities. These languages include Burgoignesc, Julian Ænglish, Corummese, and Latin.
Although Varskan serves and remains as the language of politics and governance, under the 1948 Official Languages Act, all Orenstian citizens have the right to recieve federal service in their respective national language, and where there is sufficient demand, recognized minority languages.
|Affiliation||% of population|
|Don't know or refused answer||32|
Orenstia is a secular state with a constitutionally defined seperation of church and state in all matters, including education. Religious congregations in Orenstia have been considered private organizations by the federal government since 1952, and have lost their status as charities. This has led to a decline of religious institutions nation-wide, with a majority of the religious population practicing outside of institutions. Although state atheism was praticed during single-party rule, freedom of religion and religious pluralism are now protected under the Socialist Constitution.
Orenstia remains one of the least religious nations in the world, with over 65% of the population not declaring any religion or faith, with a national percentage of convinced atheists being over 22%. According to the 2010 census, 34% of the population stated that they had "no religion", 21% stated that they were Levantine Catholic, 3% stated they were Protestant, with the remaining 10% following other faiths and religions. 32% of the population did not answer the question. Out of the religious population, 67% view religion as being "unimportant" in their lives.