Second Çyrine Republic
Seconde Respublique Çyroise
Motto: Sçavoir et Songer
Knowing and Caring
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|Government||Unitary presidential republic|
|Legislature||Convention of Citizens|
• Independence from Burgundie
|February 28, 1815|
• Abolition of the Empire of Çyr
|June 20, 1822|
|312,326.66 km2 (120,590.00 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• 2032 census
|119.5/km2 (309.5/sq mi) (27th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2026 estimate|
|$1.94 trillion (23rd)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2035)|| .951|
very high · 5th
|Currency||Tour (₶) (CRT)|
|Date format||Çyrine revolutionary calendar, |
The Çyr (/siːr/ or /saɪ.ər/; Çyrois: /siʁ/), officially the Second Çyrine Republic, and also known as the Isles of Çyr is an island nation on the western edge of the continent of Audonia between the entrance to the Barbary Straits to the east and the Sea of Istroya to the west. The landmass of Northern Audonia is 155 km (96 mi) north of the isles, while Southern Audonia is to the southeast approximately 157 km (97.5 mi) away, both separated by water. The island nation is approximately 840 km (522 mi) across and covers an area of 312,326.66 km2 (120,590.00 sq mi) including the smaller Esclaves Island and Requin Island. An equatorial nation, the climate is hot, though tempered by its western oceanic location. The isles' more than 37 million citizens are relatively evenly distributed around the coastal regions. The capital and largest city of Artagne is located on the southwestern corner of the Çyr, sheltered by Esclaves Island. The oldest city on the island and legislative capital of Mélitine is on the southern shore.
The Second Çyrine Republic is a developed country, rating highly in both Human Development Index (HDI) and Gross Domestic Product Per Capita. Fiercely independent and republican, culturally the island is a product of its colonial heritage in addition to its history under the Oduniyyad Caliphate and its early indigenous history. The island is ethnically diverse with many migrations from mainland Audonia, Punth, and the Occidental world in addition to those who are descended from the earliest Çyrine indigenous people. Despite this, the island is linguistically uniform in its official use of a dialect of Maribourgeais frequently called "Çyrois." Arabic and Tamaziɣt (the indigenous Çyrine language) are common minority languages with varying levels of representation according to locale.
The nation's economy is reasonably diversified with exports driven by commercial agriculture of tea, citrus and other fruits like pomegranate, acacia, and cork. Other economic activities include mining. Gold and uranium are the most valuable minerals extracted on the island, but iron, copper, and zinc mines make up a majority of the industry. While the Çyr has a light manufacturing sector, the rest of the economy is primarily in the service or post-industrial sectors. As the island is strategically located at the most convenient entryway to the Bay of Kandahar and the Aab-e-Farus from the west, the Çyr maintains control over access to the Barbary Straits and ships passing through the region are typically subjected to nominal tolls or forced to circumvent the passage.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography and climate
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
The oldest accounts of the name of the Isles of Çyr was "ⴽⴽⵓⵥⴰⴷⴴⴰⵔ" (Kkuzadɣar) roughly meaning "Four Kingdoms" in reference to the geopolitical state of the isles from the second millennium BCE until the 4th century BCE. Sometime after this name became commonly accepted, the Aramaic script equally gained prominence, likely through trade with the Audonian mainland where the isles became known as "𐡓𐡔𐡅𐡆𐡅𐡊" (Kuzursh). While the Old Tifinaɣ script maintained some relevance, the unified Ker-Melid Kingdom appears to have adopted the Persian alphabet with the name of the isles coming through as "𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁" (Kūruš). This name in Persian references the sun "kho" which may have been deliberate considering extant iconography and associations between the western location of the isles and the setting sun. Despite previous Istroyan influence on the islands, the first true occidental account of the isles dates to the first century CE. Thus the Istroyan name for the isles, "Χυρος" (Kȳros), was transmitted nack to Sarpedon which would come to be rendered as "Cyrus" in Latin. Gradually, language shifts in Latin led the hard C to change to a palatalized soft C. The name "Cyrus" remained in formal use until the 19th century CE, though the nickname of "the Cyr" or "the Çyr" had become increasingly common by even the late-17th century. Thus, in breaking with the imperial traditions of the colonial period, upon winning independence in 1815 the Republic of Çyr was declared.
Geography and climate
The Isles of the Çyr are situated on and around the caldera of a massive ancient stratovolcano. The volcanic caldera itself is the largest in the world at approximately 700 km by 400 km. The detonation of the volcano which occurred approximately 132 million years ago was the largest of its kind, resulting in over 20,000 km3 of ejecta thrown up with some paleogeologists placing that estimate a magnitude higher and potentially causing an extinction event. This event was likely the most powerful since the impact of a large meteor approximately 160 million years ago.
The main island of the Çyr is generally divided into three regions: the caldera or "Chaudron" in the interior, the west coast, and the east coast. On the islands' hilly coasts, temperatures are milder due to the influence of the maritime climate. The east also sees a great deal of rainfall due to easterly winds whereas the west falls within the rain shadow of the islands' mountains. In the interior, both the climate and geography vary greatly with drier and cooler highlands in the east immediately in the shadow of the tallest mountains. In the west, moist air from the central lake and lower elevations create swamps and frequent mists due to relatively still airflow within the caldera.
The land in the interior is generally more fertile than the rocky coasts with ancient volcanic soil continuing to nourish the ground. Springs and aquifers also run below the islands and artesian wells were important for early Çyrine settlers. Seismic activity is still present on the island but is limited to minor earthquakes, mud geysers, and hot springs. The volcano beneath the isles is now considered either dormant or extinct by most experts.
Flora and fauna
Due in part to the isolated interior of the caldera, the Çyr has a relatively unique composition of both flora and fauna. With the exception of several notable instances, the island's ecosystem has remained relatively stable in its closed system. Through history, human activity has drastically altered the makeup of the island's vegetation and wildlife to suit their purposes. More recently, however, conservation efforts have been generally successful in maintaining the habitats of endemic plant and animal life.
In terms of flora, the vast tropical rainforests and marshlands of the southern half of the island have heavy tree cover, largely preserved by the low human population density, though increasingly under threat from hardwood logging and the tea industry. Tea itself is the largest human-introduced element of plant life on the island, extensively grown and harvested on plantations in the island's interior, but the suitable climate has led to wild tea plants becoming increasingly common in the interior, integrating well with indigenous flora. In addition to hardwoods, Black bamboo can be found relatively commonly on the south side of the island. In the highlands, the vegetation becomes far more sparse though thick brush and thickets are still present. Along the coastlines of the island, "beach cabbage" is widespread regardless of rocky or sandy surfaces. Other flowers which are relatively commonly found on the island include bougainvilleas, amborella, and silverleaf nightshade. Longan, cashew, and almond trees are also found in the Çyr.
The Çyr has not naturally supported many large creatures, the largest wild creatures being onagers which were likely introduced by the earliest human settlers on the isles. While there have been historical claims that the island was home to lions and panthers, there is little evidence to substantiate these claims though it is known that big cats were kept as pets by various historical rulers of the islands.
In terms of endemic animal life, Monteangelo is home to a unique species of small gazelle known as the Madoque which is widespread in dry areas on the islands, namely the highlands and the coasts. The most arid regions of the island, located mostly in the island's northeastern plateau, are also home to a small population of fennec foxes. The more humid rainforests of the island are less explored in terms of fauna and there are likely many species of insects and animals which remain to be discovered, though notable animal denizens of these regions include civets and megabats. Other airborne creatures include golden eagles and kestrels which are the island's sole apex predators, keeping the population levels of many other species on the island in check, hunting the young of larger creatures and freely preying upon the smaller ones. Kingfishers are also common along the rocky coasts of the island. Despite a suitable climate, tropical birds such as the Psittaciformes order are almost conspicuously absent from the Çyr.
Despite being relatively small in size, the Çyr's climate is relatively diverse owing to its varied topography. The climate is tropical with rainforests (Af) on the eastern coast and the western interior of the caldera where precipitation is heaviest. Elsewhere along the coasts the climate is best categorized as varying between savanna (Aw) and hot steppe (BSh), usually correlating with elevation, though these classifications are borderline owing to the extreme cooling effect of the Levantine Ocean, particularly in the west. In the interior's highlands, hot steppe gives way for cold steppe (BWk) and snow is not unheard of in the cooler months. The extreme elevations of the mountains likewise make for cool climates and certain peaks maintain a layer of snow and ice year-round.
As an equatorial nation, the Çyr experiences relatively limited seasonal variations and does not practice daylight savings time. In the lower-lying regions, average daily highs range from 30°C (86°F) with lows of 20°C (68°F) in the southern hemisphere summer while the winter months can bring highs as low as 20°C (68°F) and lows of 15°C (59°F). As a general rule, temperatures drop by 10°C per 1,000 m (5°F per 1,000 ft) and some towns do expect some amount of seasonal snowfall. Airflow is more stagnant in the interior owing to the walls of the caldera and heavy fog is common. The western region also has many wetlands fed by artesian aquifers and the Chaudron lake.
Government and politics
As a unitary state, the Çyr's central government holds supreme authority, with very little power devolved to the nation's provinces and lower-level governments. The central government is divided into three branches: the executive, the judiciary, and the legislative; the latter of which is based in the city of Mélitine while the former two are based in Artagne. The executive branch is led by a president who is elected every 4 years, the same period for which members of the unicameral legislature, the Convention of Citizens, also serve and are elected. Members of the judiciary are appointed by the executive and are confirmed by the legislature. The Çyr has traditionally had a great diversity of political parties and, as of 2032, eleven different parties occupy at least one seat of the 345 total in the legislature. Currently, the Social Democratic Party forms a majority government and the current president, Lélie-Minerve Saverne, also ran on a Social Democrat ticket. The great number of political parties has often been attributed to the nation's instant-runoff voting system which allows many parties to maintain varying degrees of relevance in the public eye.
The Çyr is also notable for its heavy inclination toward socialist policies. Social services, healthcare, and most utilities are all provided by the government under a single-payer system. Education, though not free at the post-secondary level, is heavily subsidized by the government which maintains controlling shares in each of the isles' universities. Many of these policies are longstanding and stem from the islands' history during which the labouring classes have often held a great deal of political power. The Çyr's history as a modern nation-state has also been marked as fiercely republican and its 1822 constitution was one of the most liberal in its time. In the present, those liberal values continue to form a cornerstone of Çyrine society and the Çyr is renowned as one of the most friendly and inclusive nations in the world for various different peoples, refugees, and minorities of all stripes.
The Çyr is subdivided into 9 provinces. The island is also often divided into three regions: West Coast, East Coast, and the Interior; but these regions are purely geographical and are not political divisions. Provinces are further divided into arrondissements and communes. Arrondissements have local councils but are components of urban areas and are grouped under a city council or similar urban administration. In contrast, communes are considered rural areas with a greater deal of autonomy for the administration of infrastructure and bylaws. Arrondissements are generally larger than communes, typically counting approximately 150,000 people per, and are frequently redrawn. Communes are generally smaller but cannot be redrawn as often, numbering anywhere between 20,000 and 80,000 denizens. Making use of arrondissements and communes as the distinction between urban and rural, the Çyr is 74.97% urbanized. However, this number is likely skewed as the province of Carelles is entirely compromised of autonomous communes despite some metropolitan areas. The central lakes of the island do not fall under the direct jurisdiction of any one province though several islands do. Instead, the lake is administered directly by the Directory of Domestic Affairs.
|Province||Flag||Abbreviation||Capital||Population||Land area (km2)||Density (people per km2)||# of arrondissements||# of communes||# of seats in the Convention of Citizens|
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The Çyr's legal system was first devised in 1822 and is based on its codified criminal code. As such, the decisions of appellate courts do not directly alter the criminal code, though landmark cases have been known to lead to amendments in the code following major legal decisions. The code itself has been altered and revised many times since its inception. Naturally, a great deal of the national legislature's work is devoted to statute which then must be affirmed by the nation's supreme court. Beneath the supreme court are the appellate courts of which there are one per province. Appellate courts are not permanent and are typically formed by senior members of various judiciaries within a province. Only if a criminal appeal makes its way through an appellate court would it be heard by the supreme court. As such, it is very rare that such a thing comes to passes which is why it typically inspires statutory change if such a thing comes to pass. Below the appellate courts are the trial courts of which there are typically one per arrondissement or commune. Trial courts are where most legal proceedings take place including proceedings for both indictable and summary offenses.
Law enforcement on the island is handled between the National Gendarmerie and municipal peace officers. Unlike other gendarmeries around the world, the Çyrine unit is not a paramilitary force and officers typically do not even wield firearms on duty. In crisis situations, gendarmes are authorized to use deadly force though this is rare. The prison system in the Çyr is considered to be highly progressive and both the incarceration rate and rates of recidivism are extremely low. The Çyr officially abolished the death penalty in 1953 with the last execution having taken place in 1944 during the Great War.
Military service in the Çyr is voluntary and while the force is small, even proportionate to the nation's population, it is highly active and well equipped. The branches of the unified Çyrine Armed Forces include the Regular Army (Forçes Terrestres), the Navy (Forçes Marines), and the Air Force (Forçes Aériennes). The average citizen is eligible to enlist in the military at the age of 18 in either full duty or reservist capacities. In contrast to many other nations, the Çyrine reserve corps is currently only at half strength and is dwarfed by the regular forces as well. This is due in part to the number of reservists who have been called into full service since the mid-2010s.
The armed forces have been actively engaged since 2016 in Operation Paladin: the Çyr's anti-slavery and anti-piracy mission in the Levantine Ocean and various parts of the Audonian rift channels. Both the safeguarding of trade lanes in the isles' surrounding area and the humanitarian mission of rescuing human cargoes have repeatedly been important missions championed by the Second Republic throughout its history, particularly following the Great War. After a period of relative pacifism from the 1980s to the early 21st century, the mission has subsequently been renewed and supported by successive governments and the nation's people.
The Çyr has a diversified and highly planned economy with exports largely driven by agriculture in the form of cash crops. Tea is by far the isles' leading export, dominating the western hemisphere in sales while also growing in other parts of the world. Other major agricultural exports are in fruits like pomegranates, which are in fact named for the Taisrin city of Granate, as well as certain wood products such as cork and tropical blackwoods. Agriculture has historically been a major industry on the islands since the beginning of the colonial era, but the plantation system has long since been eradicated with farms now frequently owned in common as syndicates with several markets also being managed by state-organized monopsonies - including tea.
Other major economic activities on the island include mineral extraction, manufacturing, and post-industrial production. Mineral extraction of copper, zinc, iron, gold, and uranium is entirely state-owned and operated. Major manufacturing sectors include shipbuilding and clothing. While relatively small, automotive manufacturing also plays a major role in the Çyr's economy through two domestic firms; Chaux Automobiles and the smaller yet more renowned Saraçen Motors. The Çyr also has a major reputation for its film industry based in the city of Boix-de-Houx due to the low costs and heavy subsidies provided to productions, at least those which are union-friendly.
The dependency ratio of the Çyr is only around 40, with a workforce of approximately 22.5 million people. Employment standards and the minimum wage are enforced uniformly across the nation and the latter currently stands at 18.40₶ ($14.00) per hour. The pre-tax median income on the isles is 96,581.90₶ ($73,390.50). The modal income is similarly high at 68,924.20₶ ($52,374.00) before taxes. Both are well above the national low-income line of 28,974.50₶ ($22,017.15) which is used as a purposefully broad indicator of poverty on the islands. The average Çyrine worker works 1,760 hours annually with a minimum of 37 vacation days (38 during leap years). Due to the Çyrine revolutionary calendar, Çyrines have more weekend time than countries following either the Gregorian or Julian calendars.
Agriculture and mineral extraction on a whole, while highly regarded and relatively expansive, only makes up approximately 8% of the nation's economic GDP and a slightly smaller portion of the nation's workforce. Altogether, the Çyr produces enough goods to sustain itself domestically and provide for a small export economy, led by far by tea. Agricultural activity on the isles is most heavily concentrated in the Çyr's interior in the provinces of Carelles, Taisre, and Madine.
Industry, including mineral refinement and manufacturing, makes up around 21% of all economic activity. The isles' heavy industry includes shipbuilding and a small automotive industry. Chemical production and more light manufacturing also play major roles. Most industrial activities are concentrated on the coasts, particularly in Aqtéon, La Saraçe, and Requin.
The service sector makes up the greatest part of the Çyrine economy; accounting for approximately 71% of the national GDP. The post-industrial sector has continually grown since the end of the Great War in the Çyr, and despite a small share in global shipping and a small professional class in that era, meteoric growth in this sector immediately following the war has defined the present make up of the nation's economy. Compared to other nations, the Çyr's service sector is more tightly regulated; with healthcare, education, and some elements of the transportation and media sectors coming under heavy government oversight.
The Second Çyrine Republic maintains commercial relations with most nations in the world with important participation in a loose economic association with other Audonian nations. In turn, the Çyr actively participates in the policing of commercial lanes in international and common waters, particularly in its immediate surroundings in the Sea of Istroya and the Levantine Ocean to the west and north as well as the Barbary Straits to the east. The Çyr is a net exporter, mostly of cash crops and mineral goods in addition to some manufactured products. The majority of imports are likewise foodstuffs but also include manufactured commodities such as cars and other luxury items. Despite the relatively important role that maritime trade plays in the Çyr's economy, the nation has a relatively small shipping industry and foreign companies play a large role in this sector.
All major roads, railways, airports, and seaports in the Second Republic are owned and operated by the Çyrine government via the Directory of Transportation. All land-based forms of public transportation are funded entirely by tax revenue and have no immediate use cost for residents or tourists. As all roads are likewise publicly owned, there are no toll roads on the isles. Commercial air, rail, and sea transportation are typically subject to costs dependent on the tonnage and/or tariffs for both residents and foreigners. While all Çyrine airports are publicly owned, there are no major domestic airlines on the Çyr since the folding of AéroÇyr in 2022. Chartered flights across the islands are rare leading most people to traverse the isles via rail or boat.
Following clean energy initiatives in the early 21st century, public transit has become increasingly prevalent, rising from 38% of commuters in 2006 to 71% in 2032. Airlines and shipping lines have also been subjected to environmental tariffs since 2019, leading to the decline of the former.
The Çyr is self-sufficient in terms of energy production which is entirely owned and operated by the state as a public utility. Approximately 90.4% of all power on the isles is generated by five nuclear power plants, each equipped with five reactors fueled by uranium which is likewise mined on the islands. Hydroelectricity accounts for the next greatest supply of electricity at just under 6% through twenty dams with fossil fuels making up most of the remainder. The energy situation is considered to be in great flux, however, as the government has been investigating the use of thermal and/or tidal power for electrical generation with a goal of replacing fossil fuel use by 2040 and eventually decommissioning all nuclear power plants by the end of the century in order to rely entirely on renewable sources of energy, though the feasibility of this project has been called into question.
The 2032 national census of the Çyr counted a total population of 37,314,445. This number represents an increase of approximately 10% over the decade since the previous census. Birth rates across the isles are generally low at 10.56 with immigration counting for a large portion of population growth with just over two hundred thousand immigrants accepted annually. The death rate sits at approximately 6.01 meaning that natural growth accounts for just under 46% of total demographic growth.
Economic, social, and foreign policy all contribute to the Çyr's large immigrant population which has dramatically expanded in the 21st century. While the issue has produced some dissent in the public forum in recent years, most mainstream political parties and the Çyrine public continue to support the present levels, with certain factions even demanding an expanded degree of immigration. New immigrants generally settle in the nation's urban centres, though certain rural locales, particularly in Carelles have seen increased settlement by immigrants. Most arrivals on the Çyr originate from mainland Audonia or Punth though trouble in Western Crona has seen an increase in refugee cases. While relatively diminutive in scale, immigration from Occidental countries is also present.
The Çyr's population density of 119.5 per square kilometer (309.5/sq mi) ranks between average and low across the world and the more developed nations. The population is highly concentrated within the southern coastal metropolises of Artagne and Mélitine as well as the eastern half of the interior, specifically in La Hache, though most of the coastal regions are fairly evenly populated as well.
Just under 70% of people in the Çyr report themselves as living in households with family or some form of kin. Approximately 27% report living alone while the remaining approximately 3% live in households with no family or kinship relationships. The average reported household constitutes 2.5 members.
The Çyr is an ethnically diverse nation with most of its population being of mixed heritage. While the Çyrine government officially denounces any substantial elements of race or ethnicity, it recognizes the social and cultural importance of ethnicity and the privileges and disadvantages that may affect its population accordingly in a disproportionate manner. To that end, denizens of the Çyr may self-report their race/ethnicity on the national census; the categories for which are reflective of the nation's history. Approximately 21% of the population identifies as Audonien(ne) which refers to people of either North or South Audonian descent from the period of the Oduniyyad Caliphate onward. In turn, only 7% of the population identifies as Amaziɣ, referring to indigenous inhabitants of the isles since antiquity. 11% of the population self-identifies as Créole which refers to native-born white Çyrines during the colonial era. The remaining 18% are Immigré(e)s or immigrants who were not born in the Second Republic. 5% of census respondents refused to self-identify with an ethnicity. The largest portion ( around 38%) of the population self-identifies as Mestis, referring simply to a mixed background.
The official language of the Second Çyrine Republic is Çyrois; a dialect of Maribourgeais which has several notable characteristics both in orthography and vocabulary but remains highly mutually-intelligible. The history of the language stems from the isles' colonial history under the South Levantine Company from 1723 to 1815 where it was both the language of governance and commerce, supplanting Arabic as the lingua franca on the isles. Since 1869, the University of Artagne has published official dictionaries and grammar guides, providing de facto regulation for the language.
Eight out of every ten Çyrines speak Çyrois as a first language, with the remaining portions relatively evenly divided between Arabic and Tamaziɣt. This represents a large change since the 1950s prior to which the number of Tamaziɣt speakers was below a single percentile while Arabic as a first language still accounted for around 20% of the population. Prior to the 1860s, Çyrois was a minority language despite being the official language of the nation since its founding in 1815. Immigrant first languages are not accounted for in these statistics which would suggest that the portion of Arabic speakers is higher than 10% due to immigration from Audonia.
Bilingualism is common among Çyrines, typically with Çyrois and either of the other two recognized national languages which receive relatively robust reinforcements in the modern curriculum. Immigrants to the Çyr are also highly encouraged to learn Çyrois as proficiency in the official language is acquired for full citizenship, though fluent knowledge of Arabic or even more rarely Tamaziɣt may be sufficient in certain communes. It is estimated that between 65% and 75% of Çyrines are bilingual while 25% of those are multilingual with three or more languages.
|Affiliation||% of population|
|Don't know or refused answer||6.0|
The Çyr is an entirely secular nation with complete separation of church and state in all matters, including education. Religious congregations are nevertheless present but have been considered community organizations by the government since 1971, losing their status as charitable organizations. This has led to a decline of religious institutions despite the proportion of religious affiliates remaining relatively similar in the ensuing decades.
Statistics on religion are nevertheless collected in the national census. Irreligion is extremely prevalent, making up the majority of the population. This is most common among the isles' urbanized population. Islam and Christianity have similar numbers of adherents while traditional Çyrine religions lag behind the "other" category which is mostly composed of the more diverse beliefs of immigrants. In general, immigrants tend to number among Muslim or Christian affiliates.
The population of the Çyr is considered one of the most educated in the world with 59% of all adults possessing some form of post-secondary/tertiary education. Both primary and secondary education are funded entirely by a single-payer system and while post-secondary education incurs tuition costs for students, educational institutions are nevertheless heavily subsidized for domestic students by the state. In total, the Çyr spends approximately 7.4% of its GDP on education. Pre-school services for young children are also provided for in the education budget and, similarly to post-secondary education, is heavily subsidized for Çyrine families. On the international stage, Çyrine students perform well above average on measures for proficiency in mathematics, science, and literacy. The Çyr is also a participant in ARGUS, an intergovernmental program operated by several Romance language-speaking nations for student and cultural exchanges at the post-secondary level.
Primary and secondary school are operated similarly. Primary school comprises 9 years of education, typically beginning at the age of 5 (occasionally ± 1 year), and concluding at the age of 14. Students receive a generalized education in various subjects. General language studies are also explored while students are encouraged to take part in extra-curricular activities organized by the school. Secondary school naturally follows primary school and lasts for four years with graduation typically occurring at the ages of 17 or 18. The curriculum for secondary school differs in that it is more specialized than primary school with different choices of elective courses, extracurricular activities, and even vocational schools that place students on highly varied trajectories for their educations. Completion of secondary school grants a student a diploma which is universal regardless of the student's trajectory but also includes an account of their studies. Both primary and secondary school are mandatory up to six months past the age of 18 or until graduation.
Post-secondary education is available in every province of the Second Çyrine Republic. On the isles, there are 74 major universities and exactly twice as many major trades schools. Counting smaller institutions, there are over 300 post-secondary schools across the nation. The two largest universities are the Madrasse al-Melit and the University of Artagne which each have several tens of thousands of students and operate satellite campuses across the isles. Degree programs in all universities follow a standard convention with undergraduate studies, graduate studies, and special programs such as engineering, architecture, and education among others which students may enter directly from secondary school if their performances were strong enough. Other programs such as law or medicine may require additional qualifications or examinations for admittance in addition to an undergraduate education.
Healthcare in the Çyr is operated on a single-payer system including access to pharmaceuticals, optometry, dental care, emergency medical services, and assisted living for the elderly and the disabled. Access is universal for all Çyrine residents, though visitors to the country can also access healthcare services for nominal fees. As a portion of the national GDP, healthcare spending accounts for between 8.7% and 10.7%. Despite the moderate healthcare budget in comparison with other countries across the globe, the Çyrine system is very highly rated, especially after considering the variety of services accounted for with the budget. This is in part attributable both to the size of the nation and ever-present access to healthcare facilities as well as to the high standard of education for medical professionals coupled with increased access to that level of education.
Access to healthcare is considered an important cultural virtue for Çyrines which is reflected in numerous demographic choices. While people may not receive compensation for donating blood or tissue, the Directory of Health and Public Safety has reported that 89% of the adult population is registered for full organ donation in the event of death and viable extraction. In addition, 2.1% of the population regularly donates blood. The nation's registry for bone marrow donations is also reported to be one of the most comprehensive in the world.
The Çyr's culture is informed in many ways by a tradition of care and social responsibility. The nation's history of colonialism, diversity, revolution, and republicanism have translated into its modern values. Çyrines experience great social equality and very little discrimination of ethnicity, sex, gender expression, or sexual preference. Trust in the electoral system is also important, not in the sense that it always functions, but in the sense that the system must be held to account for the will of the people. Despite its revolutionary history, Çyrine society is notably nonviolent with below-average homicide and assault rates and heavy restrictions on the use and ownership of weapons.
In light of its varied history, the Second Republic is both at times a cultural melting pot and a cultural mosaic. While the mid to late 19th century saw the strengthening of a Creole cultural tradition centered on the Çyrois language, both prior to and subsequently the varied eras of the isles' history have been celebrated and perpetuated. Thus, while Amaziɣ culture is understood to be proper to indigenous Çyrines, it is celebrated more broadly as emblematic of the nation in general.
Internationally, the Çyr has a mixed reputation due to its republican and emancipatory values. While more liberal nations typically laud the human rights projects of the isles, more conservative nations regard it with a level of distrust due to its disestablishmentarian bent and vocal opposition to many traditions and values which are still holding strong in the Occidental world. In addition, while still possessing nominally a capitalist mixed economy, the Çyr has historically supported communist nations around the world, often in opposition to the efforts of imperial powers.
A particular element of Çyrine culture which is relatively distinct is the rejection of the label "Occidental." Despite being a post-colonial nation which was founded upon the notions and structures of its previous Occidental regime, Çyrines preferr instead the idea of a "middle hemisphere" though this concept has little traction outside of Audonia and parts of Punth. The middle hemisphere concept is based equally upon the distinct character of Audonia in Antiquity through to the Renaissance and the colonial era as well as the concept of both Occidental and Oriental philosophies blending in the modern era. Adherents to the former school use the concept to critique the broad strokes by which Occidental scholars have traditionally painted the rest of the world whereas proponents of the latter take a broader and more internationalist approach to cultural exchanges, viewing the idea of a middle hemisphere as being broader than just the Çyr or Audonia on their own.
Despite its small size, the Çyr is well-known for its production of material culture in various art forms both visual and otherwise. The city of Boix-de-Houx in the province of La Hache is one of the world's largest hubs for filmmaking, modeling, fashion, and music. In addition, the city is also home to the headquarters of Songbird Media, a global audio media company that has experienced massive growth in 21st century.
In terms of visual arts, [hotography and painting are both elements of Çyrine culture which obtain reasonable attention locally, but few artists receive great attention internationally. The first national gallery for the presentation of visual arts was opened in 1866 in anticipation of the Grande Foire, the world's first international exhibition which showcased the arts and archaeological discoveries of the Çyr. The national gallery has expanded to three locations across the nation. These institutes were formed for the presentation of Çyrine artwork and also for the safekeeping of non-governmental archival materials. While funded by the state, artists and donors of archival materials maintain control over items kept within these institutes.
The Çyr has three main news and media networks: ReseauEstat, Chaisne+, and Canal Q. The first of the three is state-owned and operated but has a strong history of independent programming and political objectivity. The other two networks are publicly traded corporations and provide a variety of programming and original shows in addition to the licensed rebroadcasting of foreign content. While most programming is in Çyrois across all three networks, ReseauEstat provides some programming in both Arabic and Tamaziɣt while Canal Q provides some in the former.
The history of modern organized sports in the Çyr dates back to the colonial era when a Levantine Hockey League team was raised in the settlement of Barbessin in 1783. In the modern day, there are national teams in a variety of sports including association football, australian football, volleyball, among others. The Çyr has had moderate success in various team sports throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, particularly in regional competitions.
The more traditional sporting activities in the Çyr have always been racing. Whether on foot, on horseback, or on foot various competitions on the isles have been accounted for dating back to antiquity. The world-famous Barbary Tour is a yacht racing event beginning and ending in Rosches Noires, wherein competitors must race up the Barbary Straits, reaching a designated point, before turning around and returning to the port of origin. The event has its origins in a pre-Islamic Çyrine legend. It was revived in 1864 and has subsequently been held every four years. The race length varies from event to event, but is typically between 900 and 1,180 km (560 and 733 mi) in total length.
By far the most popular and well-known sporting events in the Çyr in the present are motor races. The first motor racing event was held in 1894 and Grand Prix racing has occurred regularly since 1906, running under a Formula Libre standard for most of its history until the global incorporation of Grand Prix racing after the Great War. At the local level, both open-wheeled and stock car racing remain common even as extracurricular activities in school. With both regional karting associations and a national formula series which is accredited by the International Racing Federation, the Çyrine racing circuit likewise sees a great deal of young international drivers making their way through feeder series on their way to the various top echelons of motorsport.
Çyrine cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes constructed off of different elements, fusing traditional Audonian cuisine with the traditions of many migrants throughout the isles' history along with more modern inventions and adaptations. The most common staples are rice and soy, the latter of which is both consumed as sprouts and as curds. Emphasis is placed on fresh ingredients and produce without the use of refrigeration which only became accessible on a large scale on the isles in the 1950s. In terms of animal-based protein, chicken and seafood are commonly consumed. Spices and aromatics such as cinnamon, pepper, fennel, and ginger are very ubiquitous in many dishes. Food in the form of rolls of various types are also common, whether they're Audonian shawarma in pitas or Punth-inspired Çyrine cold rolls in rice paper.
The national beverage of the nation is unambiguously tea. Per capita, the Çyrine population consumes 6 or 7 cups of tea per day, equating to approximately 1 kg (2.2 lbs) of tea leaves per year per person. These numbers eclipse consumption of both soft drinks and coffee on the isles. Tea is regularly consumed with all meals and often in-between meals as well.
While not as ubiquitous as tea, alcoholic ginger beer is also commonly consumed. The beer is typically brewed from malted barley though also occasionally from rice beer or Tchouaq. The beer is fermented with ginger flakes and cane sugar. Naturally brewed ginger beers do not require carbonation, but some versions of the drink are manufactured with grain alcohol and ginger extract and thus need to be carbonated. The Çyr is the only nation in the world where consumption of ginger beer (or any flavoured beer for that matter) outpaces consumption of a regular beer.