Federacy of the States of Kiravia
Rektārka Kiravix Ārkáya
Motto: "Aslovaniūs cūos Lomit"
"Go Forth and Begin"
|Location of Great Kirav in Ixnay. Uruvun, New Ardmore, and Æonara also indicated|
|Official languages||Kiravic Coscivian|
|Recognised national languages||Kiravic Coscivian, Iatic Coscivian|
|Major Languages||Various Coscivian languages, Aboriginal languages, Kharic, Latin|
|Ethnic groups |
5% Colonial Natives
|Government||Asymmetric federation of republics|
• Chief State Executive
• Chief Defence Executive
• Discovery and Colonisation
• Confederate Republics of Kiravia
|18 Sávilús 20718|
• Kiravian Federacy
|20 Kémtilús 20952|
• 21200 estimate
|GDP (nominal)||2013 estimate|
|62.476 trillion (1st in Ixnay)|
• Per capita
|44,624.95 (2nd in Ixnay)|
Yes, also a dago and a wop|
Error: Invalid Gini value
|Currency||Kiravian Saar (FS)|
|Time zone||UTC-00:30 (Valēka Standard Time (DST))|
|ISO 3166 code||KF|
The Kiravian Federacy (Kiravic: Kiravix Rektārka) is a political union of states based on the island continent of Great Kirav in Ixnay and including numerous overseas states and territories in other regions. It is an asymmetric federation in which states have varying levels of autonomy from the federal government, which itself is a constitutional, presidential republic. Kiravia is a culturally Coscivian nation, belonging to a civilisation distinct from the East or West, and is thus home to many unique cultural traditions, conventions, and artifacts. After emerging from a long period of stagnation and decline under Kirosocialism, Kiravia experienced a period of rapid economic growth during the late 21180s and 21190s, becoming a significant economic and political power in Ixnay and farther afield.
- 1 Name and Etymology
- 2 Politics and Government
- 3 Society and Culture
- 4 Economy
- 5 See Also
Name and Etymology
The name 'Kiravia' comes from that of the Kiygrava River, which itself is a Coscivian rendering of the indigenous Tapkek hydronym Kihigarawa, meaning "bowed river". The river gave its name to the Coscivian colony of Kiygrava (now the State of Kiygrava) and later to the Viceroyalty of Great Kiygrava, which encompassed all of the Coscivian colonies on the Kiravian island continent.
In proper English usage, 'Kiravia' refers to the entirety of the Kiravian Federacy, including its incorporated overseas possessions. In contrast, the island continent itself should be referred to as 'Great Kiravia' or 'Great Kirav'.
Politics and Government
The political system of the Kiravian Federacy is prescribed by the Fundamental Statute of the Kiravian Federacy, its constitutional document.
The Cambrium is the unicameral federal legislature. It has the power to enact laws and bears primary responsibility for the Federal government’s finances. Representatives to the Cambrium are known as Delegates (Kiravic: Adimurya) and are directly elected by the citizens of their federal subjects. Each mainland state or chartered colony is allotted three seats in the Cambrium, while territories and federal districts are allotted two each. External territories are invited to send delegates to the Cambrium, but they may only vote in committees. Delegates serve three-year terms that are renewable indefinitely.
The Cambrium conducts most of its business through a system of committees and various orders of subcommittees. Cambrial committees review, accept, prepare, debate, revise, and either approve or reject proposed legislation for submission to higher committees or a plenary session of the Cambrium. They also conduct investigations, exercise the Cambrium's supervisory role over the Executive and Judiciary, and hear testimony from experts and interest groups.
Because the Federacy is a presidential republic with a strong executive, control of the chancellery is usually less important to policymaking than the relative strength of the pro- and anti-administration "camps" (Kiravic: fōlikurnix sturuv, asokurnix sturuv). After each election, the Prime Executive and his administration will work to consolidate a loyal group of delegates to support his initiatives in return for policy concessions. The end result of this bargainign process is called the "common agenda" (lódriamulkar). Legislation is most successful when the pro-administration camp firmly controls the chancellery and the common agenda can be implemented largely as-written and with minimal delay. Under anti-administration chancelleries or weaker pro-administration ones, a longer and more complicated process of negotiation, amendment, whipping, and executive-legislative compromise is required to implement legislation.
Article XXV of the Fundamental Statute bans organised political parties on the Federal level. That is to say, any group or organisation that coördinates or directs the behaviour of politicians on the Federal level cannot have a corporate personality, hold money, own property, or undertake campaign activities. However, there exist several more loosely organised political groups, cadres (Kiravic: kadastræ) to which Cambrians belong, composed of alliances of state and regional parties and like-minded independents. The political groups active in the Cambrium at present are the Shaftonist-Republican Alliance (Liberal conservative, Ordoliberal), the Caritist Social Union (Christian democratic, distributist), the Cadre of Right (Traditionalist conservative), the Coscivian National Alliance (National conservative), the Liberty Group (libertarian conservative), the Agrarian Cadre (Agrarian, green conservative), the New Deal Coalition (Kirosocialist), Kiravia of Regions (Antifederalist), and the Direct Democratic Front (populist). While the cadres are ostensibly organised along ideological lines, they are in fact broad alliances with many competing internal tendencies. In order to build cadres, form coalitions, and secure majorities, Cambrial leaders must court the support of various state parties, which are often more beholden to ethnosocial, linguistic, sectarian, or local interests than to ideology.
Supreme executive power is vested in the office of the Prime Executive. The Prime Executive is indirectly elected via the Citizen Assemblies and serves a renewable five-year term. All executive power procedes from the Prime Executive, who is at liberty to delegate that power to inferior offices and agencies, which he may appoint, vacate, create, merge, and revise the portfolios of, provided that doing so does not contradict a law passed by the Cambrium.
Originally envisioned as a custodial position chiefly responsible for the military, foreign affairs, and day-to-day administration, the nature of the Prime Executive's office has evolved over time. Under Kirosocialism, the powers of the Prime Executive were dramatically expanded, both to better manage the sprawling bureaucracy created by Kirosocialism and to implement Kirosocialist policies more easily by bypassing the Cambrium.
Under the Mérovin Reforms of 21196, the domestic powers of the Prime Executive were pruned back from their Kirosocialist excesses. However, the Executive branch and the Prime Executive in particular still have a high degree of autonomy with regard to foreign policy and national security, with the Cambrium giving it "a wide berth" in those spheres.
Political Culture and Tendencies
Kiravian political culture is drastically different from that of most modern nations. The Left-Right spectrum, linked to the development of capitalism in the Occidental world, is generally held to be inapplicable to politics in most Coscivian countries.
Like any free society, Kiravians hold to a multitude of ideologies, viewpoints, and beliefs. However, as with any society, it is possible to identify a few general tendencies. Kiravians, even those favouring a strong Federal government, have a strong tendency toward subsidiarity, preferring civil, local, and state-level action on issues to top-down Federal intervention. Further, they tend to reject efforts at social engineering and radical transformations of society, being reformist-minded and holding a gradualist, evolutionary view of social change.
Kiravian foreign policy is principally informed by a neorealist or neoclassical realist conception of international relations. Most Kiravian policymakers view the international system as an anarchic one in which actors (states) seek to maximise their security by increasing their relative power, at the expense of other states. The structure of the international system and the range of possible policy outcomes is determined by the distribution of relative power. Kiravian foreign policy is also values-based: In tandem with security and survival, Kiravian foreign policy behaviour is inspired by domestic values (Coscivian culture, fears of Westernisation, religion, autonomy). This leads to a foreign policy that, generally speaking, seeks to maximise Kiravian power in order to protect its political and cultural autonomy from outsiders.
During the later Mérovin and early Candrin administrations, Kiravian foreign policy briefly shifted toward a neoliberal, economically-focused foreign policy, dramatically expending free trade and engaging with institutions dominated by Western liberal democracies, such as the Confederate Nations and ODECON. While the economic results of this policy were positive, its political and military aspects (such as humanitarian interventions and coälition wars against distant dictatorships) were highly unpopular with a citizenry and political class wary of Westernisation and uninterested in democracy promotion.
Today, Kiravia enjoys good relations with right-of-centre governments, generally non-Anglophone and with religious populations, such as Urcea, Kuhlfros, Absurrania, and Zoingo. It retains its membership in ODECON and is a leading member of SNOWPEC and the Levantia and Odoneru Treaty Association. Since mid-21200, its foreign policy has been focused on the Ixnay region, with its key interests being the political stability of neighbouring countries, maintaining the regional balance of power, and promoting trade.
Kiravian foreign policy is strongly national sovereigntist. The Fundamental Statute forbids the Kiravian government from surrendering its soveriengty to any international, supranational, or regional organisation or institution. The Federacy is not a member of the WA, though it does maintain a puppet state, the Kiravian WA Mission to work to limit the organisation from the inside. Kiravia has also been a strong opponent of the Ixnay Regional Government, aiming to reform it into a voluntary coördinating body and actively blocking movements toward supranationalism and regional integration.
Society and Culture
Ethnic and Cultural Groups
The vast majority of people in the Kiravian Federacy belong to and identify with the culture and heritage of Coscivian civilisation and are thus referred to as Coscivians. Coscivians belong to a large number of different ethnic groups and subgroups distinguished from each other on cultural, genæological, historical, and linguistic grounds. Most Coscivian-Kiravians trace their ancestry to the original settlers of the Coscivian Empire's colonies in Great Kirav or to several successive waves of immigration from the continent of Éorsa, though there are a number of ethnic groups of non-Éorsan origin who came to be considered Coscivian after a long process of assimilation, such as the Indokƿem and Grey Coscivians.
Celtic peoples have a large presence in the Kiravian Federacy that predates Coscivian colonisation. Between XXXXX and XXXXX, several groups of Gaelic migrants crossed the Straits of Canucróva from what is now Kuhlfros and Northern Kistan, establishing settlements and chiefdoms across the Kiravian Northeast and also in isolated pockets as far south as Trinatria. Constantly in conflcit with Kiravite Aboriginal polities and subject to raids from Normandy, these early Celtic settlers (referred to as Ænocéiltem or "First Celts") never established a centralised state in Kiravia and were quickly integrated into Cosco-Kiravian society during colonisation. The Ĥeldican Coscivians, infused with Celtic blood and culture by Hiberno-Scottish missionaries in Éorsa, further reinforced Celtic culture on the island continent, as did later immigrants from other Celtic countries and regions, such as Nova Pictavia, modern Kuhlfros, and the Celtic areas of the Latin Empire and Urcea. New Ardmore, admitted to the Federacy as a state in 21203, is populated almost entirely by Gaelic-speakers.
The structure of Kiravian society is extremely complex. Coscivian-Kiravians belong to hundreds of different túaþæ (generally translated as "communities") organised along ethnic, religious, and political axes, as well as smaller social groups based on association, geography, and economics. Túaþæ (singular túaþa) are ethnically-based social groups that, unlike Western "racial" groups based on biological characteristics, are defined in terms of language, religion, tradition, customs, culture, heritage, and history. Most túaþæ in Kiravia were transplanted from Coscivia, but there are some whose ethnogeneses occured from the expansion of the Kiravian Empire or from the assimilation of foreign populations into Cosco-Kiravian society. Túaþæ can be grouped into larger "cohorts", usually with a shared language subfamily or religion.
In rural and semi-rural areas, most social interaction takes place within the túaþa. This is somewhat less true in urban areas, but some urban communities do remain comparatively insular, and most urban Coscivians retain a strong sense of ethnic identity. Túaþæ form supportive social networks based on shared identity, and thus play an important role in economics and local politics. Communities often maintain their own pubs, libraries, social clubs, trade unions, neighbourhood watches, and vernacular literature schools for children. Smaller firms often prefer to serve customers or do business with other firms of the same ethnicity, especially among more insular communities in urban areas.
Relations between túaþæ are generally neutral at the worst, but more often coöperative and friendly. Some ethnic rivalries (such as those between the Aŋlem and the Geldican groups, or between Kaśuvem and Muŝkem, based on a history of conflict in Coscivia) occasionally result in violence, but generally manifest themselves as simple distrust and mutual avoidance. Intercommunal tensions are often local in nature, and do not necessarily extend to populations of the same tuathas in different localities. No túaþa nor cohort is large enough to form a majority in Kiravia (The Gërem are the largest at 21% of the population), so ethnic loyalties play little rôle in Federal politics.
Most Coscivians marry within their túaþa, but each group maintains its own customs regarding which groups are acceptable for exogamy. While a few groups are strictly endogamous, the majority allow intermarriage with related groups in the same ethnic cohort or of the same religion. For example, marriages between Daƶiem and Krinstem (both Eastern Iatic-speaking) and between Helscem and Tebnem (both Komarist) are fairly common.
Language and Language Policy
The official language of the Federacy is Kiravic Coscivian, a formalised creole language based on Postclassical Iatic and incorporating influences from various Coscivian languages. Kiravic is the language of government, law (except in a few states), business, and interethnic communication. 75% of Kiravians can speak Kiravic, though only about 54% speak the language "very well" or "well". Iatic or High Coscivian, the classical and prestige language of Coscivian civilisation, is understood by most educated Kiravians, and is the language of high literature, higher education, scholarship, science, and liturgy.
Other than Kiravic and Iatic, Kiravians speak several hundred vernacular languages, most of which belong to the Cosco-Adratic family, but also including Kharic, Aboriginal Kiravian languages, and others. Most Kiravians speak a language other than Kiravic at home, and most are bilingual in at least their ethnic language and Kiravic. Use of Coscivian vernacular languages is vigorous, sustained by the wide availability of radio, film and television (mostly through subbing and dubbing), and public information materials for major vernacular languages and those whose speech communities are geographically concentrated. Literature in vernacular languages is also common, and many families in metropolitan areas send their children to classes teaching their ethnic language and its literature as an extracurricular activity. The most spoken Coscivian ethnic languages are Antaric Coscivian, Peninsular Coscivian, Austral Coscivian, Stelanovian Coscivian, Isapic Coscivian, and Æran Coscivian.
Gaelic is the most important non-Coscivian domestic language in Kiravia. It is spoken by native Kiravian Gaels, Ardmoreans, and more recent immigrants from Kuhlfros and Alba. Gaelic is the sole official language in the states of Kintyre, Arkelly, Mariava, and New Ardmore and co-official in the states of Ilánova, Irovasdra, Arkvera, and Kastera. Classical Gaelic is also the liturgical language of the Insular Apostolic Church.
Freedom to use the language of one's choice is protected under the Statute of Liberties, and public school systems must make "reasonable accomodation" to make primary education available in pupils' native languages. However, Kiravic is a mandatory course of study for all Level 4-8 students who do not speak the language already, and is the language of instruction in all public secondary schools. University classes (with the exception of business classes) are taught either in Iatic or a vernacular language.
Religion is a major cultural force in Kiravian society. Studies consistently report 82-87% of Kiravians identifying themselves as "monotheïst and religiously affiliated", with most of the remainder being freelance monotheïsts or deïsts (see here for a detailed discussion of Deïsm in Kiravia) or adherents of non-monotheïstic religions (mostly colonial natives and Tatarystani Jains). A large minority of Kiravians practice religious rites on a daily basis, and a majority attend religious services at least weekly.
The two largest religious groupings in Kiravia are Christianity and Coscivian monotheïstic religions. Since the 21170s, there has been a clear majority (57-65%) of Kiravians claiming Christianity as their sole or primary religion. Dividing Kiravians into religious groups is problematic due to the high degree of syncretism between the Coscivian religions and certain Christian denominations. However, since the late 21180s, a growing number of Cosco-Christian syncretists have converted to orthodox Christianity, only celebrating Coscivian rites for cultural or seasonal reasons. Nonetheless, adherents of Coscivian religions remain active in their faiths and in society.
According to the Fundamental Statute, the Federal government is loryavôntix or "religiously-neutral", which carries a very different meaning from the alternative terms lāsgix or niloryax (secular), gliloryax (irreligious, decidedly free of religion). The government may not adopt an official religion, favour one religion over others, or address theological questions, but the influence of religious ideas and organisations in politics is permitted. The Statute of Liberties affirms the ancient Coscivian custom of helvicor patrá (liberty of worship), as well as freedom of conscience, thought, and belief, protecting religious, irreligious, and non-religious philosophical beliefs alike. The Kiravian government is often seen by observers both foreign and domestic as broadly favouring religion over irreligion without actively repressing irreligion.
The largest Christian denomination is the Coscivian Orthodox Church (which, despite its name, is theologically closer to Roman Catholicism), followed by the Insular Apostolic Church, the Roman Catholic Church, the Archepiscopal Church of Kiravia, and the Reformed Orthodox Church. ~60% of Kiravian Christians attend services weekly or more frequently, and an additional ~20% attend at least once a month. For many Kiravian Christians, especially urban Kiravians and those from an ethnic background associated with one particular denomination, religious rites on feast days and other observances and irregular attendance at Vespers or Scripture study classes, take precedence over weekly Sabbath services.
Monasticism plays a major role in Kiravian religious life, with some 15% of Kiravian Christians spending at least one year as a monk or nun. Monasteries are highly valued in the holistic outlook of Coscivian civilisation as places of spiritual grounding and regeneration. While some monasteries seek greater seclusion from society, the vast majority accept visitors and guests seeking spiritual guidance, instruction in prayer and meditation, or corporal aid. Though perhaps eclipsed by universities as centres of scholarship, Kiravian monasteries remain important intellectual centres with a prodigious literary and artistic output. Monasteries are also a significant contributor to the Kiravian brewing and distilling industries, and a few monastic beers and whiskies are commercially available nationwide.
A growing phenomenon in Kiravian Christianity is the proliferation of víutiascrálitumæ ("independent congregations") organisationally distinct from the established churches, which can variously be described as parachurches, emerging churches, interdenominational movements, religious associations, or minor churches in their own rights. These groups undertake adult religious education, charitable work, ecumenical activities, and religious activism, and tend to have doctrinal requirements more broad and inclusive than those of denominational churches. Participation in independent congregations is highest among young and unmarried adults in urban areas.
The majority of private educational institutions, schools and universities alike, are affiliated with Christian churches and have significant Christian ethea, though many have become more ecumenical in character by hiring non-theological faculty from outside their denominations.
The largest Protestant denominational families are Methodists, Lutherans, Bretheren, Adventists, and Quakers.
Islam is the largest religion in the Kiravian Federacy after Christianity and the Coscivian religions. Kiravian Muslims are diverse in their sectarian affiliations: 55% are Shi'a (including Alawites, Alevis, and Nusairis), 30% are Sunni (primarily Hanafi and Maliki), and 15% are Ibadhi or belong to minor sects. Sufism carries great influence on the practice of Islam in Kiravia, with a large proportion of Kiravian Muslims belonging to Sufi orders or exercising Sufi practices. Most Kiravian Muslims are from non-Coscivian backgrounds, mainly Indo-Aryan (Tartarystani), Woolzistani, Ghassani, Quadeshi, or Absurranian, though there is a growing population of Aślaviem or culturally-Coscivian Muslims.
Compared to other highly-developed postindustrial nations, Kiravia has a very large rural population and a very decentralised urban population distributed among a large number of geographically dispersed metropolitan and micropolitan areas.
Kiravian immigration policy is unlike that of most democratic nations in that it is designed to facilitate the entry of foreigners into the Federacy for economic purposes with the understanding that they will remain legally connected with and eventually return to their home countries, rather than to acommodate permanent immigrants with the goal of naturalisation. Kiravian immigration policy is also ethnically and culturally preferential, giving people of different ethnicities and nationalities different prospects for visas, residency permits, and naturalisation. Kiravian legal status is based entirely on ius sanguinis rather than ius soli. That is to say, being born in Kiravian territory does not make one a Kiravian national or citizen, and the offspring of a Kiravian citizen, metic, or national inherits their parent's status at birth, regardless of where they were born.
The vast majority of immigration to Kiravia has historically been from other Coscivian countries, primarily the former Coscivian Empire, but also Livensóla and the smaller countries and stateless peoples of the Coscivian diaspora. Culturally Coscivian immigrants enjoy an expedited immigration process and can easily obtain Kiravian nationality and citizenship.
Nationals of countries closely allied to the Federacy also enjoy preferential treatment in migration matters, though not nearly to the extent of Coscivians, Celts, or Finno-Ugric peoples. Nationals of countries such as Urcea and Kuhlfros have access to the streamlined Privileged Entry Permit visa and bypass ethnic criteria for permanent residency and (to some extent) naturalisation on the basis of their nationality.
The largest non-Coscivian immigrant groups present in Kiravia today are Echoëse, various Celtic groups (including Rofhadans, Kuhlfrosians, and Blue Cross Islanders), Latins (including Urceans), Indo-Tartarystanis, Woolzistanis, Monavians, and Italians (inc. Insuians and Limoncellese).
One salient and unusual aspect of contemporary society is its wide digital divide. Despite the fact that Kiravia is a world leader in information technology as both a leading producer of data processing equipment, software, and "smart" capital goods and a significant contributor of Web content, large segments of the Kiravian population have low access to and/or use of many information technologies. Unlike most advanced countries, the Kiravia's digital divide occurs not only along generational and class lines, but also (and in many cases, more acutely) along regional, urban-rural, and even cultural-political ones. While wealthy, urbanised states such as Kiygrava, Cascada, and Kaviska have extremely high levels of computer ownership, cellphone use, and digital literacy, more remote states or even rural areas or more insular ethnic communities in urbanised states have dramatically lower levels of engagement with high technology.
Also of note is the tendancy among Kiravians who have access to information technology and the ability to use it to curtail their use voluntarily. Sociological studies have found that many Kiravians working in corporate industry or the professions associate mobile communications, email, the internet, and digital video primarily with work, and prefer to "unplug" when not working, viewing emails and work-related calls after-hours as intrusions into their private lives. Social media, while extant in Kiravia, has a much more professional slant and is valued more for its networking applications than for keeping in touch with friends, for which Kiravians typically prefer pubs and private gatherings. Using information technology in stricter moderation has increased in popularity since 2024 as part of the átrimodernarisēn or "alter-modernization" movement.
Art and Literature
Kiravian literature, which in Kiravia refers to works written by Kiravian authors in either Kiravic or Modern Iatic, to the exclusion of the vernacular Coscivian languages, is a central component of Kiravian culture.
A marked pessimism pervades Kiravian literature, and Kiravian novels are commonly rife with suffering portrayed in both a Shaftonist light emphasising the moral and transcendental value of hardship, and an existentialist light emphasising the absurdity of existence. Noted author _______ once remarked, "No Kiravian has ever penned a book with a happy ending, and I don't intend to be the first."
Notable Kiravian authors include _______. The celebrated travelogues of Íoan Érolin, which celebrate the regional cultures, local histories and folkways, and natural beauty of Great Kirav, are considered the highest expression of Kiravian romantic nationalism.
Notable contemporary movements in Kiravian literature include the suvantoirsgūn (English: "psychofiction" or "neurofiction") genre of psychological thrillers that draw heavily upon recent discoveries in cognitive science and neurology, as well as a revival of the epistolary novel.
A diverse array of musical styles, both Coscivian and Western, are performed and enjoyed in Kiravia. Coscivian classical music, developed by the court musicians of the Second and Third Coscivian Empires, is regarded as having the highest artistic merit.
The premier form of popular music in the Federacy since the 21160s has been electronic music, including both electronic dance music and "electrified" adaptions of other rhythmic musical styles. Electronic music developed independently in Kiravia, beginning with an underground scene in a few Valëka and Escarda night cafés. The first public electronic music concert was held in 21163 in Mérosar, Metrea, leading to an explosion of DIY production and the emergence of commercial venues and radio stations devoted specifically to electronic music. The 21170s saw the development of several distinct "root" genres that set the stylistic foundations for later incarnations of Kiravian electronica, while the 21180s were characterised by contact with the Western electronic scene and the fusion of Kiravian and Western influences.
Another popular style of music is færūɣardex music, often translated as "turbo-folk" or "folk fusion", a high-energy genre blending traditional Coscivian and Celtic instrumentation and melodies with danceable, catchy rhythms and electronic remastering. While many of the songs borrow from traditional folk lyrics or are new compositions reflecting contemporary semiurban Kiravian life, others (often called tactalâdix or "country-strong") are more overtly patriotic, nationalistic, or political, and are very popular among followers of the Coscivian nationalist movement.
Sport (Kiravic: setantra)is an important part of Kiravian culture, and most Kiravians are involved in athletics at some point in their lives. The most popular sports in Kiravia are fieldball and its variants, sampakut, śintanta, golf, ice hockey, footraces, and boxing.
Kiravia has a dynamic and highly diversified capitalist market economy. The Federacy's expansive, pluricontinental geography and pro-development policies have allowed market forces to harnass natural resources, labour, management, technology, and capital to create Ixnay's largest economy and a high standard of living. Key industries in Kiravia include information technology, biotechnology, agribusiness, brewing and distillation, and the manufacture of capital goods.
The Kiravian economy currently enjoys ample access to capital both foreign and domestic, with very few legal barriers to investment and low rates of taxation on capital gains.
The Federacy maintains a central bank, the Federal Monetary Reserve, which acts as the depository for government accounts and the primary instrument of montary policy, but has now supervisory powers over the banking sector. The Saar (◊), a fiat currency, is the primary currency throughout the Federacy. However, the Federal government also authorizes several bullion-backed secondary currencies: the silver lira (₤), platinum lira (Pt₤), rhodium lira (Rh₤), iridium lira (Ir₤), gold scudo (Au$), and palladium scudo (Pd$). These secondary currencies are mainly intended to facilitate the purchase of precious metals and to give Kiravians more options in diversifying their investment portfolios, but in some more remote colonies they serve as the primary means of exchange and units of government accounting. A treaty between Kiravia and Kuhlfros established the platinum lira as a joint auxilliary currency to encourage travel and investment between the two countries. Some federal subjects, such as New Ardmore, are authorised to mint their own currencies, most of which are pegged to the saar, which must also be accepted as legal tender for public debts.
Major corporations based in Kiravia include Alterion Group (investment banking), Dókáreum Corporation (oil and gas), Ixco Digital Industries (software and mobile devices), Overlin Engineering (diversified, electrical equipment), Seaborne Corporation (shipping), Tredagon Arms Foundry (armaments), ÁLO Alquifer (alcoholic beverages), and Dáltaventum Vërdá (media and entertainment).
Science and Technology
Coscivian civilisation is widely considered to have been more advanced (in most respects) than Eurasiatic civilisation until about the turn of the 18th century anno Domini, and Kiravia in particular has a high cultural regard for the sciences that is reflected in high standards of scientific education, a significant number of renowned research universities and scientific institutes, and a large share of both private and government investment being dedicated to research.
Kiravian science is best known for its contributions to biology and biotechnology (particularly agronomy and proteomics), petrochemistry, computing, and aerospace. Notable Kiravian scientists include Íoannin Saĥamantur, who independently discovered antibodies and blood types in the 19th century, and Pávur Ilśemovin, a contemporary mathematician working mainly in the areas of scheduling theory, computational and algebraïc geometry, and quantum computing theory.
The Federacy's advanced industrial/post-industrial economy and large population create a large demand for energy. Domestic energy sources currently satisfy some 38% of Kiravia's energy needs, with the remainder being imported from abroad.
[ENERGY SOURCE GRAPH]
Due to its vast territory and the geographical endowment of Great Kirav, the Federacy has a number of energy resources at its disposal. Large hydrocarbon deposits are found off the northern coast of Great Kirav and in the colonies of Arôgia, Vortisia, and Khakia, while smaller ones are found in various territories of the union. Western Great Kirav, Iothia, Atovera, Ceuvara, and the Jackpine Territory have significant uranium reserves, and the climate and topography of Great Kirav give it massive hydropower potential. While some scientists argue that Kiravia could theoretically provide for its own energy needs for the next three centuries, massive population growth and difficulties in effectively harnassing these resources have prevented domestic supply from meeting demand.
The Federacy is a founding member of the Odoneru-Uiyukin Energy Union, an Ixnay-based common energy market that pools the energy resources of several major regional energy producers.
Energy policy is an important political issue, with Federal legislative factions taking very different approaches to the problem of meeting the nation's energy needs. The Coscivian Nationalists have recently begun promoting a petronationalist ideology involving nationalisation of the hydrocarbon and nuclear fuel industries and the acquisition of energy resources abroad through colonial expansion or diplomtic arrangements, while decentralists in the Caritist, Liberty Group, and Agrarian fold have promoted programmes to encourage households and smaller communities to generate their own energy through small-scale hydropower, wind, solar, and biomass projects. More efficient and extensive development of domestic energy sources is a major component of some Cadre of Right parties' platforms, including the Reform Party of the Realm and the National Reform Party.