Health in Caphiria

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Caphiria is known for its generally very good health system, considering the fact that it has the world's 3rd highest life expectancy in 2030 (according to World Health Organization), low infant mortality, relatively healthy cuisine and diet, and healthcare system and which has the third best medical performance worldwide. As with any developed country, Caphiria has adequate and sufficient water and food distribution, and levels of nutrition and sanitation are high.

Healthcare

Caphiria has a (virtually) completely private healthcare system, with the only state-sponsored healthcare system in place for those who would otherwise have no access to it and are in severe need of it, as well as children of citizens before they acquire their citizenship and elder citizens above 70 years of age. In 2030, private insurance paid for 65.4% of personal health expenditures, followed by 34.6% by private out-of-pocket payments. All hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare providers are entirely private. Because of political and social pressure on employers to provide at least minimal private health insurance, only 13% of the public is uninsured.

Even without medicine, Caphirians are part of a healthy society. A contributing factor to the health of Caphirians is that the Senate offers free healthcare to children of citizens before they acquire their citizenship and elder citizens above 70 years of age. Literally any medical demands, from dentist check-ups to eye exams are paid from the Imperial treasury. On a per-capita level, this costs the Senate about $1,100 for children and $11,400 for seniors, though wealthier seniors usually opt out of free healthcare out of social pressure or moral obligation. Outside these demographics, anyone can request a low interest loan from the government to afford medical treatment as has been done for the entire existence of the Constitution which guarantees the availability of necessary medicine for citizens.

Water and Food

Caphiria has a good and sufficient water supply with access to dozens of freshwater lakes and rivers, yet, especially due to droughts, common in the summer (notably in Southern Caphiria), water shortages can frequently occur. Caphirians consume a very high amount of mineral water, the highest compared to equivalent neighbors: in 2030, the average person in Caphiria drank 116 liters. According to studies, 18 million people in Caphiria annually are confronted with at least one slight water shortage, and 18% of Caphirian families have been recorded as having irregular distribution patterns. Some water distribution is also uneven, and can be explained by economic factors; for example, people in Xalen, Caphiria's richest province, drink nine times more bottled water than Isuriana, one of the country's poorest.

Food is naturally grown - with no artificial additives, preservatives, drugs or pesticides at any stage of its production - in a manner that used to come at great cost to potential productivity. Nowadays, genetically modified crops and animals confer the same advantages as drugs and chemicals could offer to the agricultural industry but without side effects to consumers. Regardless of wealth, Caphirians will eat fish or other white meat on a weekly basis while red meats are reserved for dinner parties that may happen anywhere from once to five times a week, depending on your position in society. Nuts, vegetables and bread are staples of a traditional diet, eaten as meals or snacks almost constantly. Natural condiments such as garum, tomato sauce or pepper add taste without the use of artificial sweeteners or colors.

Radiation

Being a relatively warm and sunny country, Caphirians are often exposed to direct radiation from the sun (ultraviolet radiation), which, if not protected from sun cream or block, can create carcinogenic skin diseases, such as skin cancer. Despite this, the greatest risk from exposure to radiation is found indoors. Caphirians are also at the highest risk of acute radiation exposure due to the number of nuclear reactors and facilities across the Imperium.

Despite this increased risk, there have only been two recorded nuclear meltdowns in Caphirian history, although there have been two major accidents: the first was a transport accident that occurred in 2004 when a defective gamma radiography set was transported in a passenger bus as cargo. The gamma source was outside the shielding, and it irradiated some bus passengers.

The second accident was an equipment failure that occurred in 2011 when the electronics associated with a particle accelerator used for the treatment of cancer suffered a malfunction. This then led to the overexposure of at least one patient. While the initial failure was the simple failure of a semiconductor diode, it set in motion a series of events which led to a radiation injury.

That being said, when comparing the historical safety record of civilian nuclear energy with other forms of electrical generation, there were just 39 on-the-job deaths of nuclear power plant workers worldwide, while during the same time period, there were 6,400 on-the-job deaths of coal power plant workers, 1,200 on-the-job deaths of natural gas power plant workers and members of the general public caused by natural gas power plants, and 4,000 deaths of members of the general public caused by hydroelectric power plants.

Obesity

By conventional standards, 2.1% of citizens could be classified as obese - e.g. having a BMI over 30 - and 4.3% of the population (non-citizens included) could be called underweight or malnourished - e.g. having a BMI under 18.5. These standards would declare only 6.4% of residents as living at an unhealthy weight. The same standards would say that 20.7% of male citizens and 44.9% of female citizens could be classified as overweight. The disproportionate number of women carrying more weight than some societies might consider normal is attributable to the Caphirian preference for voluptuous female bodies, accentuating the statistically desired 7:10 waist-to-hip ratio. In the most recent public census, where detailed health exams were given to every citizen, the average waist size for woman was 31.5in and average hip size was 41in. Census data across the centuries shows little variety on this matter.

Life expectancy and mortality

Caphiria has one of the highest life expectancies in the world. The average national life expectancy in Caphiria is 81.3 years. By gender, the average is higher for women at 83.6 compared to 78.9 for men. This can be explored further by going into detail based off of social class: Obviously the Patrician class has the highest life expectancy at 86 years, the Equestrians at 81, Upper-Plebs at 78, Lower-Plebs at 76, and the Indigeni at 68 years on average.

Caphiria also has a very low rate of infant mortality, that of 5.51 out of 1000 people. Its birthrate is among the highest in the developed world, at 1.73 births per woman.

Sex and abortion

The ability to consent for financial transactions and sexual intercourse is gained with citizenship, or when that is not forthcoming, at the age of eighteen. The average child-bearing ages are 20 for women and 23 for men. The notion of teenage pregnancy is not distinguished from adult pregnancy and it is hardly uncommon for girls in the 16 to 19 range to bear children. According to the last census, 89.7% of teenagers with children had the baby in the bounds of legal matrimony. People seeking abortion will have to seek the procedure outside the Imperium as it is a major crime, equivalent to first-degree murder, for a Caphirian doctor to terminate a pregnancy once a neural tube is recognizable in the foetus (usually in the 2nd month of pregnancy). Unlike other countries, the Imperium never experienced a movement to legalize abortion. Still, contraception is readily available as a pill or physical counter-measure, contributing to the facility of prostitution, a completely legal, if disreputable, profession. The infamy of prostitution has not stopped the Senate from offering health and wage coverage in the event one becomes pregnant or from directly running public brothels.