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Clockwise from top left: Hekuvian nuclear bombing of Pauldustllah, Kiravian planes being reloaded after conducting missions in 1952, Umcaran paratroopers landing during the Invasion of Pauldustllah in 1949, Flordetian soldiers during the Siege of Marcus in 1951
|Commanders and leaders|
King Joe Blow the Great
|Casualties and losses|
This is currently a test page/placeholder for ideas. was originally a Levantine Urceo-Hekuvian war but also blew up later to include the Great Cronan War. we can play with the involvement of the other powers/alliances later. Figure the first phase, the war in Levantia over the dissolution of the HLE, was settled by 1935 with Urceo-Burgundie winning the war (but the Empire dissolving anyway) and the groundwork laid for a Urcea/Burg-lead Levantine Union later. A phony war with minor offensives on Uijukin and the mainland followed by another war in 1938 escalating by 1940 over something else (primarily Insui-Caphirian war leading to the formation of the Western Coalition for self-defense); this is still going on when the Cronan war begins. Burg sits out phase 2.
Involving over 100 million people from 9 countries and resulting in over 64 million deaths, it saw the mass mobilization of the industrial capabilities of participating nations into a state of total and complete war. It is marked by massive strategic bombing campaigns of industrial and civilian centers, trench and mechanized warfare, and the first and only nuclear bombing of one nation by another in an act of war. It remains the deadliest conflict in human history.
Levantine Civil War
Starting with the Southern Levantine Mediatization War, the Kuhlfrosi White Revolution, and the Third Caroline War the Holy Levantine Empire entered a period of terminal decline in terms of influence over its members and the working of its core institutions. Despite the best efforts of the Imperial Court in Corcra, the Kingdoms of Culfra, Latium, and Kingdom of Ultmar were rapidly liberalizing and eschewing centralized power in favor of various levels of devolution outside of the Imperial power structure. This started with the Kuhlfrosi White Revolution in 1823 when the Kingdom of Culfra was effectively dissolved and the Republic of Kuhlfros took its place. Previous to this, the territories of the Kingdom of Ultmar were subsumed into the newly independent Grand Principality of Burgundie and the Empire of Kistan, the former establishing a constitutional monarchy. In the south, the Apostolic Kingdom of Urcea had acted autonomously of the Empire since the Second Caroline War, dramatically reducing the resources and manpower available to the Empire. The Empire, and especially the Latins, tried to isolate Urcea in turn, and most of the Electors greatly resented the Urcean Crown since the War of the Caroline Succession temporarily stripped them of their authority in the later half of the 18th century. Urcea's conquest of Carolina and defeat of most of the Kingdom of Latium in the Third Caroline War proved another body blow to the authority of the Empire and created a generation of veterans in Latium who had been exposed to some of the Crown Liberalism ideas of the Urceans while captive as prisoners of war.
As a consequence of the Imperial Court in Corcra, many Latins in the Kingdom of Latium found themselves chafing under what Imperial authority remained, and particularly, the Latin bourgeois found that their Kingdom was falling behind the rest of the crumbling Empire in terms of liberalization. By the People’s Spring of 1848, formidable groups had formed in 15 states and formed their own protests, revolts, and organized labor actions. These were brutally suppressed by the Emperor, Louis XI. The People's Spring of 1848 saw several principalities in the Kingdom of Latium taken over by pseudo-revolutionary groups who first aimed at reform but later focused on toppling the Imperial Court as the Emperor proved intractable. These groups and Imperial forces fought several battles in 1848 and early 1849, but the focus shifted to politics as some of the more moderate states adopted parliaments after 1848, which the Emperor accepted as a necessary concession.
In the 1880s Kistan invaded Kuhlfros and the Emperor enforced a non-engagement order, barring any of the HLE states from coming to Kuhlfros’ defense. This breach of the long standing mutual defense custom of the empire led many to hold the court in Corcra in contempt and once again sparked the flames of dissent in the Kingdom of Latium. As a result of the Third Caroline War, many Latins had long feared that Urcea would attempt to consume the Kingdom of Latium and its constituent states, and Latins now felt that the only thing keeping the Urceans away - the Imperial Court - would no longer protect them. The breach of the mutual defense custom flamed these fears as some speculated that Corcra would attempt to keep the “northern liberals” out of “southern politics”.
In the 1890s, the Red Interregnum broke out in Urcea, and this destructive civil war lead to the Depression of 1900, which destabilized the Empire and lead to mass uprisings in the Kingdom of Latium. It also renewed an enmity between Caphiria and Urcea that would be an important undercurrent for the conflict in Catholic Levantia to come.
In 1909, the Grand Duchy of Anivania was gripped by violence as republican forces took control of the ducal palace and declared a republic. By 1911, they concluded a civil war and formalized the Serene Republic of Anivania. Utilization of “Serene” to emphasize the sovereignty of the state was not recognized by most other Imperial states, but its success in achieving and maintaining autonomy sparked other movements later.
In 1920, as it became clear violence and instability was gripping the Empire, the Collegial Electorate did what would have been unthinkable a century before and elected King James VI as Holy Levantine Emperor in a last ditch effort to stabilize the Empire. It was thought that Urcea's muscle behind the Empire may give it the resources needed to hold itself together.
In 1921, the Electorate of Aescarata faced a socialist revolt. Urcea intervened and soon the intervention became an occupation. In 1922, the Imperial charter was rewritten to include the bulk of the Electorate into the Kingdom of Urcea, validating the fears of an Urcean takeover of the region. By 1925, the region was considered a powder keg waiting for the right spark to explode.
Levantine Theater (1927-35)
The 1925 election in the Republic of Lutsana saw the majority of seats in the legislature go to the Lutsana Worker’s Party and the appointment of a communist Prime Minister. Pope Pius XI and Emperor James VI Augustus suppressed the results and called for a new election with more “acceptable” results. A movement, that had long been simmering across the Latin States, of seeking more self-determination erupted. The Lutsana Worker’s Party refused to heed the demands of the Pope and the Emperor. The Army of Lutsana’s high command sided with the emperor and announced they would arrest any member of the Worker’s Party who attempted to enter the parliamentary chambers. The Worker’s Party formed an army of workers and stormed the parliament building, challenging the will of the soldiers to shoot upon their countrymen. The soldiers retreated, and the matter was dropped. In February 1926, a syndicalist government was elected in the Federal Republic of Geneseo. Again, the Emperor demanded a recount and sent detachment of the Royal and Imperial Army. They arrived at the border of Urcea and the Margrave of Novaustramark and were fired upon when they refused to stop. The incident sparked a border conflict between Urcea and Novaustramark, in which Urcea insisted that Imperial troops could not be barred from passage in any territory in the Holy Levantine Empire. Several Latin States pushed back declaring that they maintained the right to control their own borders and admit and deny who they chose. In turn, the Emperor began to mobilize the entirety of the Royal and Imperial Army. The mobilization was enough to quell the disquiet for the moment. The Army was stationed along the border of Urcea and the Burgundian territories of Adtaran-Faramount. Additionally, the dissenting states were leveled with the price of the mobilization and billeting as punishment for their recalcitrance. As the price tag grew so too did the discontentment. The Imperial Diet erupted into fist fights almost daily as the smaller states vied to get out from under the new Imperial tax.
In July the Grand Duchy of Loreseia exploded with a rash of violence towards the Imperial tax collectors. 13 of them were killed and 4 more were beaten heavily. The Imperial Bank branches were robbed and set of fire in 3 cities. In the Duchy of Upper Verecundia a mob attacked the Ducal Palace and burned one of its wings to the ground. August saw an escalation of violence across the region. Violent street brawls became common in the streets of major cities as political parties and anti-monarchists attempted to control important sectors and pieces of infrastructure. The Emperor declared his intention to restore order, but acted hesitantly in order to avoid further conflagration in Latium. By August, the Grand Duke had fled to Urceopolis and a provisional government was established.
Meanwhile, Caphiria hosted a secret meeting of Latin nationalists in order to strategize how to break the Levantine Imperial system. Under Caphirian guidance, the nationalist groups formed two field armies which were to be trained and supplied by Caphirian Imperial Legion attachés. The Loreseian provisional government volunteered as the landing point for the armies and to host the joint headquarters. On March 12, 1927 a massive flotilla of the Caphirian Imperial Naval Fleet landed the newly named Allied Armies of Latium. The field armies, the Northern and Southern Liberation Legions, set out to southern Loreseia where they would divide and move to their respective theaters to encourage other state armies to join them and stand up against the Imperial Government and seek national sovereignty and autonomy. A minority of the leaders also sought the total dissolution of the Kingdom of Latium or the entire Holy Levantine Empire.
While numerically superior, the Northern Legion was technologically inferior and relatively untrained compared to the forces they would face. They numbered several hundred thousand infantry soldiers and officers and an impressive amount of cavalrymen, and lacked any consistent form of mechanization and comprised of only a sparse number of artillery pieces, as it was hoped local forces may defect and provide the heavy artillery necessary for a campaign. Their cavalry units were primarily armed with 19th century carbine patterns like the Mannlicher M1888 and the Berthier rifle. Artillery support was limited to light and medium field guns as most large bore artillery pieces were built into forts and city fortifications and they lacked the logistical train to move and support them. The Northern Legion was supported by a machine gun corps that focused its power around its Tachankas to remain mobile with its infantry.
The Southern Legion, a relatively small force of approximately 42,000 infantrymen and 8,000 cavalry included 6 squadrons of armored cars and a well-armed artillery element. A system of railways supported them to keep their logistical needs met. The Legion's infantry were provided with a great variety of small arms, requiring a complex logistical effort that slowed the Legion significantly, rendering the railways mostly unusable as the army tried to keep its 14 or more different calibers supplied. Machine guns from the Army of Anivania and the Balloon Corps from the Army Air Service of Cannella were provided to the Southern Legion.
Upon hearing of the landing the Royal and Imperial Army demanded that all parties lay down their arms, and the Emperor made a direct appeal to the Latinic States muster their armies and gendarmes to quell any dissent and halt the invasion. A few weeks of awkward mobilizations and posturing started to see battle lines being drawn across Latium. On March 29th, the Allied Armies of Latium declared war on the Holy Levantine Empire and the Northern Legion marched on Drusla. The Duchy of Drusla, a strong ally in the region of Burgundie, called upon the Empire for aid. Upon consultation with the Emperor, the Army of Burgundie was set to deploy a division of freshly recruited militia to Drusla, but a telegram from the Government of Kuhlfros informed Burgundie that their forces would not be allowed passage through Kuhlfrosian territory, scuttled plans for a quick transit via railway. The abstention of Kuhlfros from formally joining the Imperial Army and refusing to allow the passage of troops across its territory was viewed as another fatal blow to Imperial stability and viewed as a tacit support for the nationalist movement in Latium. Imperial diplomats were sent to Adenborough to negotiate a deal and the Burgundian troops were diverted to a port to be shipped around Kuhlfros. The Northern Legion arrived at the capital of Drusla, however, before the Burgundian forces could set sail. The city fell without a fight and the Army of Drusla was disbanded. The Free State of Drusla joined Loreseia as the first two self-declared independent countries in Latium.
In 1928, campaigning throughout Latium without clear result, though many of the remaining principalities of Latium were overthrown by liberals and nationalists groups, who sometimes worked in tandem and in some states opposed each other. A civil war erupted between militant nationalists and liberals in the former Electorate of Aedanica and Caphirian diplomats had to step in to prevent the entire project from dissolving as a consequence. It was in this context that the Urcean government intercepted and decoded telegraph instructions from Venceia for the diplomats. The so-called "Order Affair" nearly led to direct war between Urcea and Caphiria, but Urceopolis ultimately backed down in an attempt to avoid a two-front war it did not believe itself prepared for.
In 1929, the Emperor died, and his son, Brian, was elected Emperor of the Levantines. Many members of the Collegial Electorate, some of whom were now in exile, perceived that the Urcean Crown was acting with some hesitation, leading to disagreement among its members as to whether or not to continue the so-called "Urcean Experiment". In the final meeting of the Collegial Electorate ever, King Brian IV received a plurality of twelve votes among five different candidates chosen by the thirty electors. The new Emperor had to forego the ceremonial coronation due to the emergency gripping the Empire and opted for the Pope to crown him in a small ceremony in Urceopolis. Later that year, Kistan, heeding the cry Feinii separatists, invaded Burgundie. As a consequence, Burgundie was forced to withdraw its forces from the Kingdom of Latium to focus on its war with Kistan. Due to the invasion, Kuhlfros also stopped its diplomatic and alleged materiel support of the Latin nationalists in order to focus on defending itself from a potential Kistani incursion, and formed a national emergency unity government. This largely left the Royal and Imperial Army alone fighting just the two Legions and their Latin allies.
Up through 1930, the conflict took the form of the last Napoleonic War, as soldiers fought in loose formation and cavalry charges were expected to be battle-ending blows, but it was clear from 1928 onward that these tactics were growing more ineffective with each battle, especially as Urcean industry began to roar to life as Emperor Brian recognized this conflict as the beginning of total war. By 1930, the Caphirian government began an effort to ship more machine guns to Levantia in order to prevent the two Legions from losing parity on the battlefield with the better equipped Royal and Imperial Army. By February of 1931, trench warfare had set in as the two Legions formed a very long defensive line surrounding the core region of the Kingdom of Latium.
With the Royal and Imperial Army on the advance, secret meetings began to take place in Urceopolis between delegates of some of the rebelling states and the Urcean Crown. The rift between the Caphirian-supported nationalists and the liberals had grown significantly in the three years since the Order Affair, and many of the liberal Latins were interested in peace, chief among them being the provisional government of Corcra. The Latin delegates argued that their goals and the Urcean ideology of Crown Liberalism were not incompatible, and that the liberals had no desire to find themselves under Caphirian suzerainty. The fears of the Collegial Electors from 1929 were realized when Emperor Brian, seeing a possible end to the war, agreed to terms with the liberal states to recognize their reorganization, have a later settlement on the final state of the Empire and Kingdom of Latium, and agree to peace. Dozens of disaffected princes in exile in Urceopolis began to riot and were promptly arrested. The final phase of the war, following the so-called Liberal Shift, would see fighting between Latins as many of the liberal states joined the Royal and Imperial Army.
By 1935, the Northern and Southern Legions were confined to a territory roughly equaling the Grand Duchy of Loresia. On February 3rd, the Apostolic Kingdom of Urcea declared war on the Imperium of Caphiria and began to actively interdict Caphirian supply shipments to Latium. On May 2nd, the Northern and Southern Legions surrendered to the Royal and Imperial Army. Despite his victory, Emperor Brian surveyed Levantia and found a Burgundie undefended by the Empire, a Kuhlfros actively stymieing the Emperor's efforts, and a war-weary Kingdom of Latium. Fearing an attempted resurgence of Imperial power, Kuhlfros announced its secession from the Holy Levantine Empire on May 10th. Accepting the inevitable, the Emperor issued a formal proclamation "forever relinquishing...the responsibilities and administration of Imperial Governance in the Kingdoms of Latium, Culfra, and Ultmar", effectively recognizing the collapse and end of the Holy Levantine Empire. Urcea then forced Kistan to come to the table, threatening to intervene to defend Burgundian sovereignty. Urcea, Kistan, Burgundie, and the states of Latium agreed to the Treaty of Corcra, ending the war. Following the Treaty, hostilities formally ended in Latium as the Latin states acknowledged the end of the Empire and pledged to end any association with Caphiria, though the treaty recognized the Empire's continued existence only inclusive of Urcea. With a separate peace found in Latium, the Royal and Imperial Army was sent west to focus the Kingdom's entire efforts against the war with Caphiria.
A phony war with minor offensives on Uijukin and the mainland followed by another war in 1938 escalating by 1940 over something else (primarily Insui-Caphirian war leading to the formation of the Western Coalition for self-defense)
The war began when the forces of Horholme invaded and occupied the territories of Vachenan Horholme that were territories controlled by the nation of Vachena after the Kiro-Burgundian Wars. This invasion prompted a Vachenan response backed by Heku to retake these territories. With Heku's involvement, Burgundie enforced its policy of Commonwealth, Common Defense, supporting Horholme with the assistance of its ally Pauldustllah. The resulting mobilization spiral unraveled a web of alliances that eventually led to the participation of most of the world's Great Powers.