|Imperator of Caphiria|
Imperator's coat of arms
|Government of Caphiria|
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of Caphiria|
|First holder||Bacchis Pavo Rahla|
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politics and government of
The Imperator of Caphiria is the head of state and head of government for the Imperium of Caphiria. The Imperator exercises the executive powers of the federal government of Caphiria, keeps legislation in line with public opinion, and internationally represents the state. The Imperator also serves as military commander-in-chief and chief diplomat, directly presiding over the 13 million active-duty military personnel. While the Imperator possess near limitless executive power, the Senate has the ability to legally oppose most of the Imperator's actions by a super-majority.
Officially, Imperator is not a hereditary position despite the illusion of non-autocratic rule being dropped millennia ago. Caphirians retain a cultural disdain for reges (Kings), whose governments they view as inevitably corrupt. The candidate for Imperatorship, the princeps juventatis, must be accepted by the Senate, military, and citizens of the capital and be selected by the previous holder of the title, on the ostensible basis of suitability, for him to come into office as the next Imperator. No one has ever taken the title without fulfilling these conditions. In this way, the Imperator of Caphiria can be justifiably regarded as a republican head of government.
The Imperator governs by way of his imperium maius (supreme executive power), his auctoritas principis (primary legislative authority), and (formerly) his jure divis (divine mandate as Pope). Historically, the Imperator ruled by divine right but recently most of the powers of the Imperator have been set forth in Proclamation 9 of the Constitution. Because of this, the Imperator is the single most powerful person in the entire Imperium.
As chief executive, the Imperator is head of state and thus head of the Ministries of the Imperium, the trans-parliamentary bodies that administer the functions of the federal government on behalf of the Imperator. He has the ability to appoint and fire prime ministers, create and dissolve ministries, as well as the responsibility to appoint diplomatic and provincial officials. The Imperator also possesses the highest legislative authority; when a bill has received majorities in both Congress and the Assembly, it passes on to review by the Imperator. Here he can sign the bill, bringing into force as a law or, at his discretion, veto the bill on the basis that it violates the sovereign will. In practice, the Imperator has the final choice in matters of legislation unless the democratic representatives of the public or the guardians of national morality regard his decision as opposed to the sovereign will. Overwhelming opposition from either of those bodies is taken as sufficient evidence that the emperor is wrong to declare the bill outside the best interest of the state. While the Imperator possess near limitless executive power, the Senate has the ability to legally oppose most of the Imperator's actions by a super-majority.
On top of his legislative powers, the Imperator: has imperium (executive power) over the entire Armed Forces of Caphiria, and circumvent the traditional procedures of court to prosecute or acquit at will (unless opposed by the Senate). A Imperator's judicial rights are outlined in the Lex Augustis. Most Imperators have wielded some powers which are not legally binding. Citizens indulge their leader in these respects because of his supreme personal dignitas. Other magistrates possess political powers subsidiary to and even derived from those of an emperor. An Imperator's other titles include Princeps Civitatis (First Citizen) and Augustus (Venerable One). Separate from his public office, an Imperator bears the highest Dignitas (social standing) of a Caphirian citizen and has sacrosanctity from physical harm under Catholic and Caphirian laws. Violating his sanctity is sacrilege and treason - punished by death.
An Imperator holds a number of titles collected over the millennia, many conferring powers unique to his office. They are not necessarily held by every Imperator, having distinct ceremonies or criteria.
- Caesar (also "Καίσαρ" or "Nobilissimus Caesar"), originally the cognomen of Admoneptis Caesar - the last of the five Kings of Caphiria - it is now the primary title of a legitimate emperor after Imperator, often as "Most Noble Caesar";
- Augustus (also "Αὔγουστος", "Venerable"), an honorific cognomen exclusive to the reigning emperor;
- Dictator Perpetuo ("Dictator for Life"), a title taken by Faustus Pertinax when he assumed the position of Imperator;
- Dominus ("Lord"), manner of addressing an emperor in person, in public as "Our Lord Imperator";
- Invictus ("Unconquered"), honorific for emperors following the civil war;
- Pater Patriae ("Father of the Fatherland"), honorific title for a reigning emperor;
- Patronus Patriarcha ex Venceia et Omnis Sarpedonium ("Patron of the Patriarch of Venceia and All Sarpedon"), title granted per the Eight Points Agreement;
- Pius Felix ("Pious and Blessed"), honorific title of religious significance;
- Primus inter pares ("First among equals"), designation for the unique citizenship of a reigning Imperator;
- Primus et Solus Canon Honoris Causa ex Basilicæ Magni ("First and Only Honorary Canon of Basilicæ Magni"), title granted per the Eight Points Agreement;
- Princeps Civitatis ("First Citizen of Caphiria"), official title equivalent to the term "emperor", taken by the chosen successor on the previous emperor's death;
- Santissimus Pater ("Most Holy Father"), honorific or manner of address for the bearer of the papacy;
- Tyrannos (also "τύραννος", "Praetor of Caphiria"), title taken on by Pertinax on his assumption to power as recognition of his absolute power over the city of Venceia, now indicates an emperor's praetorship over Caphiria;
- Vicarius Christi ("Vicar of God"), honorific of the earthly representative of God or Christ;
- Episcopus Caphiria ("Bishop of Caphiria"), office of the head of the Apostolic See (no longer in use as of 2037);
- Pontifex Maximus ("Pope" or "πάπα", literally "Greatest Bridgemaker"), office of the Imperial Catholic papacy taken by emperors following the civil war, requires acceptance by the College of Cardinals (no longer in use as of 2037)
Imperators of Caphiria are given certain local titles by their subjects.
- Acetria, from the people of Adamentium after being used contemptuously by separatists in the fifth century
- Damaso, from the Asteni people after offering their waning kingdom to Caphiria
- Ratimir, from the people of Swaiegua to Caesar Alexander XIV on his visit to the Swaieguain provinces
- Dzeroun, from the South Tryhstian peoples in 1777 after Martin Vaguobatte's speech praising Caphirian authority
The multitude of titles and offices demonstrates the diversity of the empire's populace and the history of its rule.
Powers and duties
The majority of a Caesar's powers are set forth in Article IV of the Constitution. These abilities cannot be further obstructed by any organ of government other than the Censorial Assembly and are therefore the emperor's absolute powers, in contrast with his minor powers granted by non-constitutional laws.
Overlapping these two categories is the split of an emperor's powers and duties into secular and religious ones. The latter are granted through the office of Pontifex Maximus, highest authority of the Imperial Church.
Primary sources for the powers of an emperor are his imperium maius (supreme executive power) and the auctoritas principis (highest legislative authority). Overall, the place of an Imperator's powers and duties in the framework of Caphirian politics is best expressed through his roles in the Imperium.
When a bill has received majorities in both Congress and the Assembly, it passes on to the Palace for review by the Imperator. Here the emperor can sign the bill, bringing into force as a law (lex), or, at his discretion, veto the bill on the basis that it violates the sovereign will. While this power once reflected an Imperator's role as tribunus maior, it has since been fully assimilated by the imperial office. Few legislative authorities can override an imperial veto. An eighty percent majority in the Curiate Assembly or unanimous agreement within the Censorial Assembly are the only political forces which stand against possible despotic refusals.
In practice, the Imperator has the final choice in matters of legislation unless the democratic representatives of the public or the guardians of national morality regard his decision as opposed to the sovereign will. Overwhelming opposition from either of those bodies is taken as sufficient evidence that the emperor is wrong to declare the bill outside the best interest of the state. Nothing can stop the Censors from blocking an emperor's veto but consensus of the Tribune and Consul of Latins with the Imperator will override even unanimous agreement in the Senate.
The power which leaves the assent or dissent of laws in the hands of the Imperator is his auctoritas principis. This designates him the embodiment of the sovereign, whose personal will is the general will of the people.
Should an emperor fail to act on the senatus consultum that supports a bill within two weeks, the Senate has the power to promulgate it as a new law with a supermajority in both houses. This is permitted by the lex edictor vacante, an article of the Constitution designed to keep the state running during a forced absence of an Imperator.
When the Assembly or Congress are not in session, the Imperator has the power to call their members together and when they are in session, he can dismiss them unless opposed formally opposed.
As chief executive of the executive branch, the Imperator is head of the Office of the Imperium. As the main organ of the executive power, the Office of the Imperium's primary role is the actualization of national political decisions. The Office of the Imperium consists of the the Prime Minister, the chair of the council, who is appointed by the Imperator after consultations and is confirmed by a vote of both houses of the Senate, and the Ministers, appointed by the Imperator, according to the request of the Prime Minister.
Appointing praeministra (ministers) is solely the power of the Imperator. Whenever a ministerial office is vacated, the emperor is responsible for selecting a skilled patrician for the position. His choice can be opposed by an eighty percent majority in the Assembly but is otherwise binding. It is not unusual for incoming emperors to replace the entire administration of his predecessor, since it is also in his power to dismiss praeministra.
While ministers perform most of the functions of the government, their imperium (executive power) is solely derived from the Imperator; they are obliged to acquiesce to his commands. In the absence of specific orders, an appointed minister may execute whatever actions he desires, within his jurisdiction. Conversely, an Imperator obviously possesses the imperium of all those ministers who derive political power from him. The nearly limitless executive power of the Imperator is his imperium maius. Nevertheless, the Senate once again has the ability to legally oppose these appointments by a supermajority.
Aside from appointing ministers and commanders, the emperor has the responsibility to appoint diplomatic and provincial officials. The need for appropriate choices only magnifies the weight on his shoulders. Contemporaries compared the duties of Caesar Alexander XIV with the task of Atlas - to bear the whole world so that it might not fall - earning him the nickname Alexander Telamon, "enduring Alexander".
In executing the sovereign will, the Senate possesses the power to tax the population to support its finances. However, the treasury generated from taxation and public guilds is under the control of the entire government, that is the Senate, the Ministries, and the Imperator.
Public spending requires the presence of an aedile, a magistrate with access to government funds. Neither the Senate nor Imperator can appropriate the public wealth without one. While the aediles are vested with the authority for spending money, they lack the imperium to actually spend anything. The Senate can spend on whatever the Curiate Assembly chooses, the ministers can spend within their jurisdiction, and the Imperator can spend at his whim. Prudentially, all three groups discuss projected finances for a year before it starts. However, this can be a tenuous agreement since any of them can break from the budget whenever they please. Generally, Imperators are the patrons of public works. All great monuments and statues in Caphiria, Ehios, and South Tryhstia - built under the Imperium - were the vision of an Imperator, with notable historic exceptions like the Turra Volta. Other national construction projects like the Kilema Skyhook, Magnpunthe Project, or Garden of Eden have been funded under the orders of a Imperator; emperors tend to enjoy attaching their names to such magnificent works.
Emperors are generally aware of legal proceedings which happen in the Supreme Court. If the emperor has reason to believe in the innocence or guilt of a person in court he may prosecute or acquit that person, after a review of the available evidence, without due process. However, this ruling cannot apply to himself. Only the Censors are in a legal position to oppose such an action; one censor alone can render it void.
Other than this unusual power, a Imperator is completely uninvolved in the interpretation of the law. All judges and members of the judiciary are chosen independently of the emperor's will.
The Great Schism of 1615 lead to the Caphiric Catholic Church breaking away from the authority of the Pope, eventually evolving into the Imperial Church of Caphiria. From 1615 to 2037, the Imperator was the head of the Imperial Church, serving as the church's senior cleric, Bishop of Venceia, and the supreme pontiff of the church as a whole. One of the central tenants of the Imperial Church was the belief that all power metaphysically flows in a single hierarchy down from God to the Imperator himself, rejecting traditional catholic ideas of secular and ecclesiastical “arms”.
This marriage of combining the power of secular government with the religious power is what lead to the formation of caesaropapism, in which the Imperator is both head of church and state.
Per the agreement: The Imperator would abandon any pretense of the titles of Pontifex Maximus and any claim to the office of Bishop but retain the right to use the title Pius Felix; be granted the title of "First and Only Honorary Canon of Basilicæ Magni" in addition to the title of "Patron of the Patriarch of Venceia and All Sarpedon"; replacing the Pontificate of Caphiria would be the office of "Patriarch of Venceia and All Sarpedon" who will sit directly above all diocese and archdioceses in Caphiria as the highest level ordinary.
A Caesar is the peak of the pyramidis imperia (structure of power) command structure for the armed forces of Caphiria. He can issue orders to any officers in the army, navy, air force, and praetorian guard. High ranking military commanders such as legates and Generalissimus can only be appointed or dismissed by the emperor. This is perhaps the most important display of his military authority.
As Imperator, an emperor has the imperium to
- declare war against a foreign power without parliamentary permission.
- plan the Legion's military strategy - in both general and specific maneuvers.
- issue direct orders to a soldier in any branch of the armed forces or an officer of any rank.
- raise legions, fleets or squadrons either temporarily or permanently.
- force the launch of military satellites and the construction of forts, walls, and other defensive structures
A consequence of this much power is the personal responsibility for the successes and failures of Caphiria's military. The people will always direct their discontent for the latter towards the palace. As such, the emperor has a duty to appoint competent commanders if he is not an adequate military leader.
First among the citizens, a Imperator receives privileges in his normal and political life. It is socially unacceptable to refuse the minor requests of an emperor such as being his host or guest at dinner parties, yielding to him on the street, bringing something to him, or engaging him in conversation. While many would acquiesce to such requests simply out of nervousness from being asked something by the most powerful man in the Empire, there is a certain social pressure to accept anyway out of respect for the emperor's supreme dignitas (social standing).
On this basis, emperors frequently attend the parties of the rich and famous, and enjoy the company of celebrities and intellectuals across the globe. Few people will have as varied experiences as an Emperor of Caphiria.
In political theory
Moral philosophers in the Eastern tradition have long taken the government as Caphiria as their primary example or point of contrast for political theories. Indeed, its government is one of the few available examples and its state one of the only countries in the world. Their intense scrutiny of Caphirian politics has had a hand in crafting the present condition of Caphirian government, including the status of a Imperator.
The purpose of being subject to an emperor or king is, in the words of philosopher Lucius Janus Russus, for
- "the will of the people and the corporate will, the public force of the state and the private power of the government, to all respond to the same mover; the levers of the entire political machine are in the same hands and all act toward the same end. There are no conflicting movements that counteract one another and we cannot imagine any civil constitution where more action would be produced by less effort. An emperor is the Archimedes sitting quietly on the shore and effortlessly launching large ships; he governs a vast empire from his chambers and makes everything move while he himself seems motionless."
Nevertheless, Russus recognized that the same applied to a monarch and he was careful to distinguish the Caphiravian princeps by his democratic election by the empire, through the Senate, and directly by the people of Caphiria.
As the role of a government is to execute the general will of the people, an Imperator is tasked with enacting those laws which his prudence deems suitable for the state. This requires that he is aware of the desires of the people and can discern which bill from the Senate would best satisfy the people's desires and needs. An Imperator enforces the will of the sovereign, an entity formed by the union of the people and their activity in preserving this union. By uniting the concerns of the people with a prudent will, his political decisions are those of Caphiria.
Succession to the unique office of Imperator is strictly neither monarchical nor democratic. Its sole candidate is the princeps juventatis selected out of merit, not lineage, by the reigning emperor. Ideally, this ensures that a wise ruler will be followed by another wise ruler, since a wise man can identify wisdom. In practice, the selected successor has his merits but there are times when he is only the most appropriate that could be found by the previous Imperator. For the last one and a half thousand years this political endorsement has been done by official ceremony, with the Imperator arguing his choice before the Senate. If the unsuitability of his candidate is obvious then the reigning emperor can be forced to find a new one.
Once an Imperator dies with a clear choice of successor, that man becomes princeps civitatis and primus inter pares with the passing of the citizenship of the emperor to him. However, this allocates none of the sovereign imperium and provides no more than his dignitas as the first citizen. With only one title, a new princeps will usually meet with a legate or the general of the 101st legion to receive his military honors and official recognition as Imperator of the armed forces. Next, he must attend a meeting of the Senate to seek their legislative approval by majority. For most emperors, this is the time for the empire's magistrates to offer their new leader a resounding applause. Last but most important of the criteria for the caesarship is awaiting the popular assembly of the people of Caphiria, where they will vote either for or against the princeps. If an Imperator receives this second majority approval then he is designated Caesar and will be crowned with the laurel wreath by the Deydiakanos of the Catholic Church, who also announces the election, always in the affirmative, by the College of Cardinals of the emperor as Pope.
An Imperator occupies the highest social ranking according to constitutional laws segregating citizens into ordones. While a patrician according to normal standards, the emperor and his immediate relatives are collectively referred to as the imperial family and afforded extra dignitas and social recognition for this reason. The modern imperial family consists of about 177 members, of only one adopted young man is currently the successor.
Emperors do not receive a salary at the public expense but agree with the Senate on a private purse every year. This year, Caesar Panthera predicted 10 million BTC of personal spending. It is not unusual for an emperor to overstep his expected finances. However, remaining within their bounds often brings good press.
The Palace of the Imperials in Venceia serves as the personal residence of the Caesar for the duration of his reign. This stunning villa in the heart of the Eternal City has been passed down from one generation to the next since before the Imperial Civil War. Over sixty private rooms are furnished for family and guests to stay in the palace. Another major residential place of the emperor is the Island of Capri. All 10.4 sq km of Capri has been converted into an agglomeration of beautiful villas, gardens, baths, and beaches for the emperor and whomever he pleases to offer a place to live on the island. Some other homes owned by the Imperator are the Palatia Astena in Asten; the Villa Maccaster, his personal harem near Maccaster; the Villa Livia by Blacksend; the Palatia Columbia in South Tryhstia; the Hortum Cericum in the Oslanan grasslands; and the Castrum Caphiriavium, as a secure facility in the event of an emergency.