Pukhtunkhwa

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Sultanate of Pukhtunkhwa
سلطنة پښتونخوا
سلطنة پختونخوا
Flag of Pukhtunkhwa
Flag !--emblem/seal/... based on image_coat--
Motto: "United in the face of Adversity"
Map of Pukhtunkhwa
Map of Pukhtunkhwa
Capital
and
Peshawar
Official languages Pashto, Dari and Urdu
Recognised national languages Pashto, Dari and Urdu
Recognised regional languages Hindko, Saraiki, Uzbek, Turkmen, Arabic, Balochi, Pashayi, Nuristani languages (Ashkunu, Kamkata-viri, Vasi-vari, Tregami, and Kalasha-ala), Pamiri (Shughni, Munji, Ishkashimi, and Wakhi), Brahui, Khowar, Classical Latin, Kohistani, and Kyrgyz
Demonym Pushtun/Pukhtun Pashto: پښتنې ,Urdu: پشتون/پختون ,Dari: پشتون/پختون
Government
• Sultan سلطان
Sultan Khushal Khan Khattak سلطان خوشحال خان خټک
Area
• 
11,249,751.92 square[convert: unknown unit]
• Water (%)
10%
Population
• 2027 estimate
84,254,671
• 2025 census
82,958,157
• Density
7.37 per[convert: unknown unit]
GDP (nominal) 2027 estimate
• Total
$2,558,986,582,500.77
• Per capita
$30,089.77
Currency Rupaya روپۍ
Time zone PST
Date format dd.mm.yyyy AD
Drives on the right
Calling code 923
ISO 3166 code PK
Internet TLD .pk

The Sultanate of Pukhtunkhwa(Pashto: سلطنة پښتونخوا Urdu/Dari: سلطنة پختونخوا) is located at the north of Jamiat-e-Khorasan-o-Hind, Ixnay. The nearest states to Pukhtunkhwa are the island nation of Most Eminently Serene Noble Republic of Santheres to the west and Most Holy Vespian Empire in the east. It has a population of 82,958,157 per 2025 census and a strong economy of $23,447,842,166,513.80 GDP(nominal). In addition to the mainland Pukhtunkhwa also has a colony Quetzenkelistan in Punth, the natives of which appear to be descendants of the Kushtun Dynasty. They also appear to have ties to the Pukhtun explorers Bahadur Firdous Khan and Bahadur Ameen Afridi who left Pukhtunkhwa in 1800A.D never to return. Pukhtunkhwa also has ownership of two islands one De Marghkabano Tapu between Akai and Yytuskia and another De Spingat Tapu north of Kazirstan, north-west of Wayfar and East of Helvianir. Since ancient times the people of Pukhtunkhwa maintained secret bases on these islands for nefarious purposes like smuggling and piracy but on the open they also served as trading stations, a place to rest and resupply for trading ships on their way to or from Pukhtunkhwa to nearby countries. Recently Pukhtunkhwa has outlawed piracy and smuggling so their main purpose is now trade and commerce.

While the country of Pukhtunkhwa may be newly unified, the land of Pukhtunkhwa has a deep history dating back to thousands of years ago to the Middle Paleolithic Era. Archeologists have found the remains of rural communities dating back to almost 50,000 years ago. 5000 years ago Aryans moved into the land destroying all earlier societies. The Aryans brought a nomadic and tribal culture to Pukhtunkhwa and Pukhtun are their descendants. After the Aryans many foreign invaders like Farsiwan, Avitus, Bactrius, Muslim Ghaurids and Indian Muslim Delhi Sultans ruled over Pukhtunkhwa. The region also gave birth to a many dominant dynasties like Marayans, Kushtuns, Shahis, Ghaznavids, Lodhis, Suris and Khattaks that ruled vast regions and brought great prosperity to Pukhtunkhwa.

Modern day Pukhtunkhwa was founded when the great founder Sultan Akor Khan Khattak began his campaign to unite the Pukhtun people into one nation. After the completion of the Great Unification Wars in 2022 the present ruler Sultan Khushal Khan Khattak began to lead the nation along a different path, one of peace and economic development instead of warfare.

History

Prehistory

Archeological Sites reveal that civilization existed as early as 5000 years ago, and even more recent findings are beginning to indicate that the history of civilization may even be older than that. Archeologists have found the remains of rural communities dating back to almost 50,000 years ago. They were mostly farming communities one of the earliest in the world. Urban communities are thought to have existed as early as 5000-6000 years ago. Sindh Valley Civilization is the oldest civilization in the region and is suspected to have held the region of Pukhtunkhwa up till the arrival of the first Aryan invaders nearly 5000 years ago. After the coming of the Aryans 5000 years ago a nomadic lifestyle took hold with most of them herdsmen grazing their sheep. Linguistic studies of the language of Pushto reveal that Pushtun have descended from the Aryan tribes due to notable similarities between the the Aryan languages Persian and Sanskrit but with notable differences as well that prevent it from being categorized as a sub language of one or both languages. Unlike the agricultural Sindh Valley Civilization, the Aryans were a nomadic people thus lacking unity and a central ruler. They were mostly highwaymen or mercenaries. The tough mountainous region gave them a strength of will and a strong body ideal for battle and warfare. For this region most invaders chose Pukhtunkhwa as a first stop on their way to conquest of the region. The fact remains though that any invader that went through this region either stayed in the new conquered land or sought a different route for the return journey. The reason for this most historians agree is the nature of the tribes. They were a mountain people and they knew every rock and crevice in the mountains and fought using guerilla tactics, ideal in the mountainous terrain. An invading force could travel the land quickly and react to any tactics and many times the tribes would offer their own services as soldiers in the invading force in order to claim loot from rich cities for themselves, but an army burdened with treasure or trying to claim the land as their own was a different matter. It saw the full martial prowess of the tribes and would be wiped out completely.

Early History

Farus Era 100BC-129AD

The first historical reference to the lands known as Pukhtunkhwa can be found in the historical records of the historians of Farus(Persia). When the founder of the ancient Persian empire the emperor Dara(Darius) began his expansions one the the earlier acquisitions was a province to the north-east known as Khorasan. The provincial capitol was a city called Kandahar, this is believed to be the same Kandahar city which is the provincial capitol of Kandahar province in the western part of Pukhtunkhwa. Later conquests would concentrate in the west so not much else is recorded about it. We know that Khorasan is a reference to Pukhtunkhwa because the location and geographical description of Khorasan is the same as Pukhtunkhwa.

Hekuvian Era 129-130AD

We dont know for how long the Farsiwan held Pukhtunkhwa after the conquest of the land by Dara since there is no historical reference to Pukhtunkhwa after that in the historical records of Farus. We do know however that by the time the Avitusian Raids reached the land Pukhtunkhwa was the same lawless tribal land as before the coming of Dara. The Hekuvian historian Hadrian who recorded the exploits of the the Imperator Avitus records that in the year 129 AD the armies of Avitus landed on the shores of Pukhtunkhwa. They captured the port city of Gulbandar moving through Kandahar they reached Kabul where they established the capitol for the subjugation of the region. His records show that they conquered the lands very easily and met little resistance but their years of experience could not have prepared them for the hell they were about to face. In the words of Hadrian "They are like dry leather. Press down one place and another rises". This is what happened to Avitus and his armies. They conquered the land relatively easy because the Pushtun tribes did not fight the large army head-on but instead used the terrain to their advantage by waging guerilla warfare. They would hit supply lines and key positions where the Hekuvian army presence was low, looting anything they could carry and disappear in the mountains like smoke before the main armies of Avitus could reach them. Avitus spent the next few months bogged down in mostly barren lands running from one place to the next, trying to keep his supply lines open and the region under his control. Finally tired and weary he decided to move his armies south of the Hind Kush mountains and away from Pukhtunkhwa. He found his rewards there. Hearing of Avitus's plan to conquer the south many of the tribes flocked to his banner offering support and manpower to conquer the golden bird to the south-east, Hindustan. Leading the combined armies of Heku and Pukhtunkhwa Avitus marched south. After defeating Porus at the battle of Jehlum he gained immense wealth from the rich king of Punjab. The Hekuvian armies boarded ships from the southern ports laden with treasure never to return to Pukhtunkhwa. Some of the tribesmen settled in Punjab while the rest returned to Pukhtunkhwa rich men. Some historians speculate that the reason Avitus did not return to Pukhtunkhwa was because he did not dare to travel the same route laden with treasure. The fact is though that he left behind his ships, his garrison, weapons and maps at Pukhtunkhwa never reclaiming them. Some historian also speculate that the reason he left active duty was also because he was too tired and weary to continue.

Bactrian Era 130AD-132AD

While not many citizens wanted or dared to migrate to Pukhtunkhwa many of the soldiers in the Hekuvian army settled in Pukhtunkhwa. One among them was a general of Avitus by the name of General Bactrius. He was an intelligent and cunning man. Using his knowledge of the ships, weapons and war-machines left behind by Avitus he quickly rose to power in Pukhtunkhwa and proclaimed himself Imperator of Pukhtunkhwa. The Hekuvians flocked to his banner and began calling themselves Bactrians. The modern day tribes of Bakhtar and Afridis claim descent from the bactrians. After the invasion of Avitus the Pukhtun realized the importance of technology in warfare and thus artisans that had migrated to Pukhtunkhwa to seek better fortune were in great demand. The Pukhtun were a hardworking people and quick learners, soon they began to not only copy but improve the technology left behind by Avitus. In the time of Imperator Bactrius Pukhtunkhwa for the first time entered an age of relative peace and had a technology boom. Bactrius was an ambitious man, in fact he was too ambitious. Within a couple of months of his reign he began to expand outward. He started with Hindustan going even deeper than Avitus as far as the the south-eastern edge. Slowly after building the best navy in the region he even began raiding and expanding into other continents. But he did it too fast and too soon. He made too many enemies. Countries angry at his raids into their territory and internal disputes became too much and his reign only last 2 years before the Marayans took over.

Marayan Era 132AD-220AD

The Pukhtun are a warrior race and fiercely patriotic so they do not accept foreign rule for long. Bactrius failed to account for this in his plans and so it was that after a mere 2 years he was chased out of Pukhtunkhwa. The Maraya family had long held the regions of Pushkalawati(modern day Peshawar). The young head of the family Chandra Maraya had fought in the armies of Avitus thus had full knowledge about Hekuvian technology and warfare. When Bactrius began his expansionism Chandra saw this as a chance to further his ambitions. A general under Bactrius he first used the armies of Bactrius to defeat the Hindustani rulers leaving only one state, Karlanka. During the time of his father ruler of Pushkalawati and Taxiles they had asked the kings of Hindustan to aid them in the battle against Avitus but they refused to aid the Marayans and only Porus answered the call. He remembered their betrayal and taught by his father he raised an army so that no other foreign invader may ever be able to take his homeland. He began his rebellion by uniting the tribes in Pushkalawati and sent messages throughout the land for the Pushtun to rally to his cause. The Hindustanis already under his command sent their armies to aid Chandra in his cause. The nationalistic Pashtun tribes rallied behind his banner to chase out Bactrius. When the armies of Chandra reached as far west as the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara Bactrius, focused on dealing with the threats in the west, made a proposal to Chandra Maraya. Bactrius would give half his kingdom, lands to the east of Samarkand and Bukhara that Chandra had conquered, to Chandra making him Imperator of the east and to cement the new alliance Bactrius gave his daughter's hand in marriage to Chandra. Chandra upon taking control of the region did not expand but began to cement his power and focused on improving his military strength and try to build a strong navy that would become feared in the region so that none may dare to attack him. After his death his son Bandiwan Maraya became king and he continued his fathers policies but did not have any achievements that would put him among the great kings. The son of Bandiwan Ashok Maraya on the other hand was a glorious leader and made a name for himself in history that was so great that even the Hindustanis to this day still revere him as a founding father of their nation although that is incorrect he was not an Hindustani. After the death of Bandiwan Maraya rebellions sprang up in all of his territories over the succession. He had 100 sons and while he had made the eldest Sushima as his heir many regions refused to recognize him. Among his sons Ashok was the most powerful and he reclaimed all of the empire, shifted the capitol deeper in his borders to Magda in modern day Hindustan. it is a fact though that the name for Pukhtun in Hindustan, Pathan, comes from Patana whose name in that time was Magda. Ashok was of a fierce nature, he killed all 99 of his brothers so that none may challenge him again. He also began to expand the borders of his nation delving deep into India until only the Tamil Kingdom to the furthest south remained outside his rule. His unification of India is one of the reasons Indians consider him as the founder of India. After his last conquest, the eastern state of Karlanka, he converted from Hinduism to Buddhism and began to teach the path of peace. One of his achievements was that he was the first king in the region to leave his own personal records. Inscriptions on stone tablets and pillars can be found in all of the ruins of Ashok's cities detailing the activities of that time. The historians of Ashok claim that when he saw the bloodshed at the massacre of Karlanka, Ashok was filled with remorse and decided to mend his ways by following Buddhism and the path of peace that it teaches. Some more recent historians are skeptical of this view claiming that the man that did not feel remorse after killing 99 of his brothers would feel anything at the deaths of people he did not know. They claim that now that Ashok had conquered nearly all of the known world to remove any possible uprisings he chose to spread Buddhism and its message of peace to remove militancy from his lands. Regardless of the reasons it is for this period that he is most revered. He earnestly began improving the infrastructure of his kingdom and started many development works that would make him very popular among the masses. he combined Hekuvian style and techniques with Hindustani art to create a unique blend that would become the bases for the later Gandaharna Art that spread through the entire region.

Kushtun Era 470AD-725AD

After the death of Ashok most of the regions of Pukhtunkhwa fell under the rule of local Bactrian, Farsiwan or Pushtun rulers. Nothing much is recorded about them we only know of them through archeological remains left behind. The Marayan would rule India for 50 years after the death of Ashok but neither they nor anyone after them bothered or dared to conquer Pukhtunkhwa. It wasn't until the invasion of the Kushtun family from the north-western seas that Pukhtunkhwa would unite again. The Kushtun family were a clan displaced by some dispute in a foreign country and so they came to Pukhtunkhwa. Taking advantage of the local rivalries they swept through the region establishing the Kushtun dynasty. Their founder and the first Kushtun king was named Kadaja Khadrishgan and he established Pushkalawati as his capitol. They were the wealthiest dynasty to rule Pukhtunkhwa, preferring trade to warfare. Using the location of Pukhtunkhwa along the Silk route connecting East and West the Kushtuns established a vast trade network. To the west this network extended as far as Akai and to east in nearly all of Punth. Artifacts uncovered at the ruins in Quetzenkelistan provide proof of this as do the historical records of Kandooli Buddhists. They would use exotic resources from Punth in their trade deals with the rest of the known civilizations. Unlike Ashok they did not leave much historical records so most of their history is based on archeological finds and records of other countries that mention them. They were rich and great patrons of Art. The combined the artistic techniques in Architecture, Sculpting and Painting, learned from various civilization around the world, with local Pukhtun, Bactrian and Hindustani legends to create a unique culture and style referred to now by the name of Gandaharna Art. Gandaharna was the Hindustani name for Pushkalawati and Taxiles region. The greatest of the Kushtun kings was Kanshika Khadrishgan. The Kushtun also adopted the local Buddhist religion and are claimed to be the main reason for its spread around the world. The Gandaharna Art is also dominated by Buddhist religious art. They were the first to create a statue of Buddha. Often great power also gives birth to great jealousy. In 725 AD the Kushtum empire was destroyed by a mix of external and internal threats. An array of forces, chief among which were the Kabul Shahis and the Ghaznavids, removed the Kushtuns from power and the remaining Kushtuns fled overseas. After the demise of the Kushtuns, Pukhtunkhwa once again entered an age of tribal rivalries. The Kabul Shahis proclaimed themselves the lords of Pukhtunkhwa but they did not control much land beyond Kabul. Chief among their rivals were the Ghaznavids.

Islamic Era

Ghaznavids 925-1202AD

After the end of the Kushtun dynasty the Kabul Shahis proclaimed lordship over the entire Pukhtunkhwa but many tribes rebelled and refused to acknowledge their rule. Chief among the rivals of the Shahis were the Ghaznavids. Then in 842AD Islam first began to spread in Pukhtunkhwa and in the next few years became the dominant religion in the land. The Shahis refused the call for Islam but the Ghaznzvids accepted, due to which the Ghaznavids gained power and popularity throughout the land. In 923AD after finally becoming confident enough to unite Pukhtunkhwa Mahamud Ghazni son of Subugtagin of Ghazni luanched his campaign from their ancestral home in Ghazni. Islam spread through the region like wildfire and from the start the Pukhtun had shown quite a fierce devotion to the religion, partly because it was very similar to the Pukhtun culture at that point. Using that devotion and the unwillingness of the Shahis to accept Islam, Subugtagin of Ghazni first began to rally the Pukhtun to his cause in 875AD. The Shahis realizing his plans decided to crush Subuktagin once and for all, thus they invaded Ghazni in 880AD. Subugtagin gave the invading Shahis a crushing defeat. This feat increased his reputation among the Pukhtun as a capable leader and more people began to rally to his banner. Subugtagin slowly began to absorb the surrounding tribes into his army but never made a move against the Shahis in Kabul. In 923AD Mahmud son of Subugtagin of Ghazni started to move against the Kabul Shahis. In 924AD at the battle of Kabul he defeated the Shahis and forced them to retreat towards Hindustan, while Mahmud moved north-east to take the lands around Peshawar. In 925AD Mahmud defeated the Shahis at the battle of Chach and united Pukhtunkhwa proclaiming himself Sultan of the land. He then launched an offensive against the Hindustani leaders that gave support to the Shahis at Chach. In 926AD he had conquered Delhi and established tributary states in Hindustan. The HIndustanis would rebel after a couple of years forcing him to once again raid Hindustan. All total he raided Delhi 17 times during his life and each time bringing home riches that made his reign the golden age of the Ghaznavids. His sons and grandsons on the other hand began fighting each other causing the collapse of the empire until finally they were conquered by the Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghauri. The collapse of the empire also proved advantageous for another group known now as The Pukhtun Piracy and Smuggling Network that sent out first explorers in 1200A.D. In the final days of Subugtagin of Ghazni many tribes began to operate their own mercenary groups that unlike their predecessors not only fought for foreign benefactors but also did missions that were of the unlawful nature. These would in the time of his descendants group together to form The Pukhtun Piracy and Smuggling Network.

Ghaurids 1202-1208AD

Delhi Sultanate 1208-1538AD

Suris 1538-1600AD

Delhi Sultanate 1600-1825AD

Modern History

Sultan Akor Khan Khattak 1997-2000AD

Sultan Shahbaz Khan Khattak 2000-2018AD

Sultan Khushal Khan Khattak 2018-2027AD

Geography

Geography

The 11,249,751.92 square km Geography of Pukhtunkhwa is dominated by mountainous regions with lush green region to the east and becoming increasingly more dry westward. The three main mountain ranges of Pukhtunkhwa are the Karakrum ranges extending 1200 km from the south eastern border to the north upto Hasanabdal city, the lower Himalyas starting from the west of Karakrum and extending 1000 km to the north west and The Hind Kush offshoot starting from the lower Himalyas and extending the western sea along the southern border of Pukhtunkhwa. Other ranges include Salt Ranges, Margalla Hills and Koh-e-Sulaimani Ranges. The Karakrum ranges include some of the worlds tallest peaks like the Karakrum2(K2) and Nanga Parbat. The two main rivers of Pukhtunkhwa are the river Sindh and the river Amun. The river Sindh starts between the southern most parts of the Karakrum ranges and lower Himalyas, running almost parallel to the mountain ranges it passes within 50 km east of Peshawar before entering the sea near Attock port. Along the way the rivers Chitral, Swat, Kaghan, Dhor, Khurram and Kabul join with Sindh in that order. The Amun river is formed when 100 km along the Hind Kush range the rivers Hilmand and Kash join together. They are further joined various rivers along the way to the western shore, most prominent of which are Arghandab, Harirud, Murghab and Balkh. In the middle of the two river basins along the north-western coast is the 41,325 square km rock dessert, Kandahar. The green pine forests, serene lacks and snowy mountains in the valleys along the Karakrum and Himalya ranges make a popular tourist destination especially during spring and summer.

Climate

The climate of Pukhtunkhwa varies from region to region. The north western portion contains the hottest areas in Pukhtunkhwa with low rainfall especially the Kandahar desert 45°C(113°F). The valleys in the mountains to the south west are the coldest areas in Pukhtunkhwa and with some areas considered to be the coldest among the world, Skardu at -24°C(-11.2°F). The general climate in most places of Pukhtunkhwa is dry with low rainfall thus large swaths of land are grasslands not suited for agriculture. There are two monsoon seasons, summer monsoon and winter monsoon. Clouds are unable to pass the southern mountains of the Karakrum ranges thus the monsoon(part of which also enters Hindustan to the south) enters Pukhtunkhwa near the Provinces of Taxila and Hazara. The rains then travel south mostly along the Sindh river basin with little rainfall occurring in western regions. The winter monsoon enters from the north west but it is smaller in size with less rainfall, thus overall the western Pukhtunkhwa receives low annual rainfall.

Demographics

Ethnicity

With a long history of invading and being invaded many ethnic groups call Pukhtunkhwa home. The largest ethnic group is the Pushtun that claim descent from the ancient Aryan invaders. Over the years many other ethnic groups like Persian, Hekuvian, Arabs and Turks have assimilated with various tribes thus making an accurate estimate of Pukhtun origin difficult. During later years many other groups also migrated to this land in hopes of finding better fortunes or displaced by disturbances in their home country. The latest arrivals are the Punjabi, who cam her nearly 300 years ago. Other major groups include Uzbek, Tajik, Hazara, Aimaq, Turkmen and Baloch. Minor gorups like the Arab, Hukuvians, Nuristani, Pashayi, Brahui, Pamiri, Gurjar, Khowar and Kohistani etc have also settled in Pukhtunkwa and now call this land their home.

In order to identify themselves from the ethnic Pushtun different ethnic groups add a second demonym before the official demonym e.g the Tajik use the demonym Tajik Pushtun/Pukhtun.

Ethnic Group 2025 census % of Population
Pushtun 47,651,165 57.44
Tajik 12,269,511 14.79
Punjabi 8,743,790 10.54
Hazara 3,633,567 4.38
Uzbek 4,089,837 4.39
Aimak 1,816,783 2.19
Turkmen 1,360,513 1.64
Baloch 904,243 1.09
Others 2,488,745 3

Language

Due to the presence of many ethnic groups in Pukhtunkhwa, it is linguistically a very rich country. Most of the population is bilingual due to interactions between the different groups and the need to understand each other to coexist. The official languages are Pashto, Dari and Urdu, which are also the national languages of Pukhtunkhwa. Other than this various other languages are also spoken in Pukhtunkhwa these include Hindko and Saraiki dialects of Punjabi language, Uzbek, Turkmen, Arabic, Balochi, Pashayi, Nuristani languages (Ashkunu, Kamkata-viri, Vasi-vari, Tregami, and Kalasha-ala), Pamiri (Shughni, Munji, Ishkashimi, and Wakhi), Brahui, Khowar, Classical Latin, Kohistani, and Kyrgyz. These languages are officially recognized as regional languages and are official languages in regions where they are in majority.

The people of Pukhtunkhwa are bilingual and other than the regional language speak one or more national language. Once again the division is mostly along the lines of ethnic groups. Most ethnic groups use one national language although some people from that group may speak another national language as well. For example Pushtun speak Pashto but some also speak Dari or Urdu or both. The distribution of ethnic groups according to the national language they prefer to speak is given in the table below.

Language Ethnic group % of Population estimate
Pashto Pushtun, Hekuvians, Baloch 58.64
Dari Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Aimak, Turkmen, Hekuvians, Baloch, Nuristani, Pashayi, Brahui, Pamiri, Gurjar 29.3
Urdu Punjabi, Khowar, Kohistani 12.06

Religion

Nearly 98-99% of the Pushtun population follows Islam. 90% among them are from the Sunni branch of Islam while 9% are Shia. Until the 1890s, the region around Nuristan was known as Kafiristan (land of the kafirs) because of its non-Muslim inhabitants, the Nuristanis, an ethnically distinct people whose religious practices included animism, polytheism, and shamanism. Many of the Kalasha of Southern Chitral also still retain their ancient Animist/Shamanist religion. Thousands of Pukhtun Sikhs and Hindus are also found in the major cities especially near the south-eastern border. There are also small communities of Christians and Jews near the western coast.

Governance

Pukhtunkhwa is mostly composed of semi-autonomous states. They follow a single constitution approved by the Shahi Jirga and the Sultan. The Jirga has both Legislative and Judiciary powers while all executive power lies with the Sultan. Each state has its own Jirga and all Jirgas are answerable to the people and the Shahi Jirga. On the other hand all tribal Maliks are answerable to the Sultan and they are responsible for the law enforcement in their regions. The tribes are not bound by state borders but the Maliks are expected to ensure that each member follows the regulations of the state they are living in.

Jirga members are elected and once elected remain in office for life or until the people or the Jirga calls for a vote of no-confidence. They may also be temporarily suspended if accused of a crime and if found guilty removed from office. Once removed from office they may not run for office until they prove beyond any reasonable doubt that they are innocent of the crime they are accused of.

Each state is composed of different Zillah (Districts), while they are composed of different Tehsil. The tehsil may be a city or collection of villages or towns. The Jirga members for Tehsil are elected by popular vote. Each family has its own head of family, they form the village or town Jirga. For cities families in each area of the city form their own Jirga, who in turn elect a member on the city Jirga. Each city, village and Tehsil Jirga elects one member from within its ranks to act as the representative on the Zillah Jirga. In the same way the Zillah Jirga elects the members of the state Jirga, while the state Jirga elect members of the Shahi Jirga. All cases civil or criminal are brought before the Jirga who act as Judge and Jury, but in cases where they do not posses expertise in the related fields they are required to call on field experts to act as expert witness. Civil cases are mostly settled in tehsil, village/town, city Jirgas while criminal cases are brought before the state Jirga. If the cases are beyond the level of the Jirga they will refer the case to a higher Jirga or one of the affected parties may make an appeal in regards to the decision of the Jirga in a higher level Jirga.

While all domestic matters are the jurisdiction of the state Jirgas, the Sultan with the approval of Shahi Jirga may use executive powers to enforce a nationwide policy in these matters. The Shahi Jirga is the absolute authority in all Government departments except Departments of Defense, Foriegn Affairs and Law Enforcement. The Sultan is the default Minister for Defense, Foreign Affairs and Law Enforcement but the sultan may appoint someone as minister without seeking the approval of the Jirga, ministers for other departments are selected by the Shahi Jirga. The Shahi Jirga can only advice the Sultan in matters pertaining to Defense, Foreign Affairs and Law Enforcement. Upon the death of the sultan the Shahi Jirga has the authority to select whoever they see fit as the new sultan, usually someone from the same family, but once selected they may not remove the sultan.

Economy


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Pukhtun Industrial Economic Contribution

  Tourism (25.6%)
  information Technology (22.9%)
  Construction (19.4%)
  Mining and Ore Refining (10.8%)
  Electronics Industry (9.7%)
  Automobile Industry (5.6%)
  Shipping and Transport (3.4%)
  Other (2.6%)

Prior to the Great Unification Wars there was no concept of national economy for the state of Pukhtunkhwa. But due to the the tribes traditions or war the people were very rich individually with the wealth and power of tribal Maliks rivaling most kings. To date many of the tribes own multinational companies that hold large influences in the world of business. The economy of Pukhtunkhwa is quite large with the national GDP estimated at $2,558,986,582,500.77. The GDP per capita is $30,089.77 and combined with the low unemployment rate of 3.36% shows the efficiency of the economy. The economy saw a high growth rate of 5.0% over the last fiscal year. The largest contributors to the Pukhtun economy are Tourism, Information Technology and Construction Industries. The Tourism industry accounts for 25.6% of the industrial economic contribution, and employs 22% of the population. Information Technology makes up 22.9% of the industrial economic contribution, and employs 20.3% of the population. Construction Industry is the third largest industry contributing 19.4% of the industrial economic contribution and employing 20% of the population. The national economy is dominated by public sector, with the government contribution constituting 56% of the economy, the private sector contribution is at 28% and state owned industries constituting 16% of the economy.

Major sectors of the economy are as listed below.

Tourism Industry

The largest contributor to the economy is the Tourism industry. The lush green valleys of the Himalyas and the Karakrum ranges contain some of the most beautiful spots in the world. The green and serene landscape, beautiful lakes and cool temperature attract millions of Pukhtun from the warmer regions to enjoy summer in these mountains. Since the end of isolation millions of tourists and mountain climbers from other nations have also made their way to Pukhtunkhwa. The largest tourism companies are the government owned Pukhtunkhwa Tourism Development Co-Operation (PTDCO) and the Mehmannawaz Tourism Company owned by the Khan of Swat.

Information Technology

While this is a relatively new industry it is gaining massive popularity among the Pukhtun and it is said to soon surpass Tourism in terms of size. The history of the industry is closely tied with the rise of the Khan Kheil family. It was Sultan Shahbaz Khan Khattak that started Firestorm as a hacker initiative that devastated the computer systems of his rivals. His eldest son Shahzada Aftab Khan Khattak was the CEO of Firestorm. During that time they also established education programs to enlighten the masses to the current era of computers. A growing number of the population are now self employed as freelancer or employed by Firestorm. While many startup companies have begun to emerge, the company Firestorm still dominates the market partially because they also dominate the markets for mobile phones and computers. Firestorm also provides nationwide free internet which has helped greatly in the growth of the industry.

Construction

Mining and Ore Refining

Electronics

Automobiles

Shipping and Transport

Fossil Fuels

Energy

Complete list of Major Companies can be found here.

Military

The people of Pukhtunkhwa have a long tradition of military service. The harsh terrain of Pukhtunkhwa did not allow large scale agriculture and thus to survive the people had to wage wars and raid other more prosperous nations. Currently military training is a part of the curriculum in Pukhtunkhwa schools. In colleges and universities this also includes advanced weapons training. Those that have a good record in the training may be sent to various training institutes across the country. The elite among them is the Pukhtunkhwa Military Academy (PMA) Kakul. Other military institutes include:

  • Mujahid Training Center (MTC)
  • Junior Leader Academy (JLA)
  • National Defense University (NDU)
  • National Military Academy (NMA)
  • Kabul Military Training Center (KMTC)
  • Pukhtunkhwa Naval Academy (PNA)
  • Kandahar Naval Training Center (KNTC)
  • Wardak Naval Academy (WNA)
  • Naval Training Center Rawalpindi (NTCR)
  • Pukhtunkhwa Maritime Academy (PMaA)
  • Command and Staff College (CSC)
  • Combat Commanders School (CCS)
  • Pukhtunkhwa Naval War Academy (PNWA)
  • Military College of Engineering (MCE)
  • College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (CEME)
  • Military Medical College (MMC)
  • Military College of Signals (MCS)

For those Pukhtun that join the army there is 10 year compulsory military service unless the Minister for Defense or any of the three Chiefs of Staff grant special exemption. The current military budget is 3.7% of the GDP which is a significant decrease from over 70% five years ago. The current budget is approximately 90 million for both Army and Navy. A portion of the industrial budget and education budget still goes into supporting military programs. There is also no concept of Police force in Pukhtunkhwa, Law and Order is maintained by para-military forces.

Officially Pukhtunkhwa Army has approximately 800,000 troops but the number may increase during war time as almost the entire population is trained in combat. During times of war unemployed Pukhtun are drafted into the military regardless of their will. Unofficially the army may increase their numbers to 30 million or more. The army includes two main fighting arms, infantry and mobile artillery. Various supporting arms include Military Engineering Services(MES), Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (EME), Army Air Defence (AAD), Army Coastal Defense (ACD), Army Supply Core (ASC), Army Medical Core (AMC), Army Ordinance Core (AOC) and Military Signals Core (MSC). Other than this budget from the industry diverted to the army is used to support Military Manufacturing Services (MMaS). The education budget being diverted to military is used to support Army Education Core (AEC).

The Pukhtun Navy is a vast organization with more than 375 ships, 170 submarines and 150 boats, employing over 80,000 personnel. The navy also includes remnants of the former Pukhtun piracy groups that were officially pardoned for a lifetime of service to the country. The navy is mainly responsible for stopping smugglers and pirates and protecting ships traveling within Pukhtun waters. Military Manufacturing Services (MMaS) is responsible for manufacturing of naval equipment, using budget from the industry section of the national budget, while the Navy Education Core (NEO) is responsible for the training of Navy personnel, using budget from the education section of the national budget. Supporting arms for the navy include Military Engineering Services(MES), Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (EME), Naval Air Defence (NAD), Naval Supply Core (NSC), Naval Medical Core (NMC), Naval Ordinance Core (NOrC) and Military Signals Core (MSC).

The Inter Services Intelligence agency (ISI) is ranked as one of the worlds best intelligence networks. It is based on the union of the old smuggling and piracy networks into a single intelligence agency. Both civilian and military personnel can apply for the ISI.

The Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR), is, in principle, an administrative military media brand to broadcast and coordinate military news and information to the country's civilian media and the civic society. The directorate also works as the principle voice of the Pukhtun military, with its director-general serving as the official spokesperson of the armed forces. In addition the ISPR provides fund, productions, and assists with the military fiction franchise, both military dramas and the war films.

The Paramilitary organizations employ more than 1 million personnel nationwide. They are responsible for law and order within Pukhtunkwa. The different Paramilitary organizations include Army Rangers, National Guards, Mujahid Force, Frontier Corps and Frontier Constabulary. While lower rank officers are selected from within the organization itself high ranking officers are appointed from the Pukhtun Army. They get training from one of the many military academies within the country.

Education

Health

Culture

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