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|cartadaniano, língua cartadaniana
|Native: 440 million;
80 million L2 speakers; Total: 520 million
|Manually coded Cartadanian
Official language in
Cartadanian (cartadaniano or, in full, língua cartadaniana) is a Romance language originating in the Attalus Midlands region of Sarpedon, around the Attalus Basin. It is the sole official language of Cartadania and Ceylonia, maintains co-official language status in Kartejya and Porlos, and is a recognized national language in the Cape. A Cartadanian-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone" (lusófono), from the Lusia region where it originates, or less commonly as "Cognatian" (cognatense), referring to the Cognatia region where Cartadania is located alongside Pelaxia. As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Cartadanian and Cartadanian creole speakers are also found around the world. Cartadanian is part of the Taino-Kindredian Romance group that evolved from several dialects of Caphiric Latin in the Caphirian provinces of Cartadania and Pelaxia.
The roots of the Cartadanian language can be traced back to the medieval language known as Aleo-Cartadanian, or Old Cartadanian, which was spoken in the northwestern provinces of Caphiria, the region in which Cartadania was situated. Written records of Aleo-Cartadanian were first recorded in Latin administrative documents dating back to the 9th century, in a phase known as Proto-Cartadanian, which persisted until the collapse of the Second Imperium in the 12th century. At this time, Lusia became a quasi-independent state and the region was influenced by various Taínean-descended tribes, as well as Germanic peoples who navigated from southwestern Levantia.
As a result of these influences, the Latin language spoken in Cartadania and Pelaxia began to evolve into the Romance languages spoken today. Over time, the various dialects of Latin spoken in these regions began to diverge and, by the time of the Third Imperium, had evolved into distinct languages. Cartadanian emerged as the national language following the independence of Cartadania in 1630, in part due to the expansion of colonization into the Cartadanian interior and the increasing numbers of Cartadanian settlers in the west.
Throughout the centuries that followed, Cartadanian continued to evolve, reflecting the country's history of colonization, trade, and cultural exchange. Substantial waves of non-Cartadanian-speaking immigrants arrived in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, mostly from Aciria, Burgundie, Pelaxia, Urcea, Volonia, the UAE, and Polynesia. These groups were largely linguistically integrated into the Cartadanian-speaking majority within a few generations, with the exception of some areas in the two northeasternmost states of Cascália and São Andreas, where Urcean, Calinthian, and Ardmorean languages persisted, and in northern Maresia, where the Burgoignesc language was spoken, as well as in Lotoa, where the indigenous Lotoan language was still in use. Additionally, in Porta Bianca, the native Taínean language maintained a foothold for quite some time.
Cartadanian is the dominant language spoken in Cartadania, which is the official language of the country. Additionally, Ceylonia and Porlos, which were once territories of Cartadania, also recognize Cartadanian as their official language. The language has also had a significant impact in the Cape, particularly around Natalia, where many Cartadanian elites migrated during colonial times. In 1697, a coup led by these elites overthrew the colonial administration and established an oligarchic corporate administration that imposed the Cartadanian language on the local population.
Other areas with significant Cartadanian-speaking populations include Bicariana, which was formerly a Cartadanian territory but was ceded to Urcea in 2021. Saint Kennera and Pribralter, due to their proximity to metropolitan Cartadania, also have Cartadanian-speaking populations, albeit smaller than other areas such as Tolôn. Tolôn is the largest city in Xula and serves as the leading port for Kiravian trade with Cartadania. The Tryhstian Littoral also has a sizable population of Cartadanians, with two-thirds of the population speaking the language. This is due to the establishment of several industrial settlements by Cartadanian merchants in the emerging Kiravian market.
Cartadanian is considered one of the fastest-growing Canetic languages, behind only English, according to estimates from the Bureau of Information and Statistics. It has been identified as having the highest potential for growth as an international language in southern Crona and Audonia, according to publishing data from news giant Publixão based on the same estimates. Cartadanian is widely spoken across the world and has become a globalized language, used in some capacity on five continents. Millions of people speak it as a second language.
In 2028, Cartadania founded the Union of Sarpedonian States (UNESARP) along with Pelaxia and soon joined by Volonia. As a result, the language is either mandatory or taught in some schools in those countries
Cartadania's large size and diverse history of immigration and colonization have led to the development of distinct regional dialects of the Cartadanian language. Despite these differences, the written form of Cartadanian remains consistent throughout the country, and speakers of different dialects can often understand each other with relative ease. The variations in dialect typically involve differences in pronunciation or the use of certain sounds, much like regional differences in other languages. The dialects spoken in Ceylonia and Porlos, former territories of Cartadania, also exhibit some regional variations from the standard Cartadanian dialect spoken in Cartadania proper. This situation is not unique to Cartadanian, as it is similar to the variations in English spoken in different regions of Caphiria and Alstin.
Cartadanian in Cartadania has developed into twenty-eight regional varieties that collectively form eighteen distinct dialects within the country's ten regions. These dialects differ in various aspects such as prosody, intonation, and word usage, and some may even incorporate local slang. In some areas, the influence of other population groups, such as those in northern Maresia and Lotoa, may have a significant impact on the local dialect.
- Valerian – Spoken in the state of Triessa along the southern coast, particularly around Valorica. The fusion of Latin, Cartadanian, and southern Levantian linguistic elements has resulted in a unique dialect and lexicon that is distinct to the area. Valorenos tend to speak with a sing-songy type of accent that is primarily unique to southern Triessa. This intonation is known as Valerian Cadence and is an obvious identifier of someone from this area.
- Manderian – Spoken in the states of Cascália and São Andreas, as well as northern and central Triessa, this dialect is the most influenced by old Latin and English. Some of the localities in the region have Germanic origin names and borrow slang from English.
- Acarena – Spoken in coastal and peninsular Acara. Similar to the Valerian dialect, though it lacks the intonation of Valerian cadence
- Mileira – Spoken in the vast majority of Aleira, northern Acara, and rural areas of Maresia (mostly the Faible region and far eastern Est region).
- Promonto – Spoken in the southern Promontoire and western inland portions of the Est region of Maresia. This dialect is most notably spoken in Auvergne.
- Charentano – Spoken in northern Aleira and the Charente region of Maresia. This dialect especially concentrated around Aumiers. It is heavily influenced by Burgoignesc and its vocabulary, with various borrowed words from Burgoignesc. This dialect is also spoken in Providência.
- Fortunense – Spoken in São Ricardo, it shares many similarities with Charentano and is sometimes considered a sub-dialect. It does, however, retain most of the traits and speech patterns of the Fortuna Latin dialect, such as the debuccalization of syllable-final /s/ and velarisation of syllable-final /n/.
- Aleo – Spoken in the vast majority of Alexandria, this dialect is influenced by Ettian and early Latin, retaining some words from both, such as the Latin "gratis" and "bis" as opposed to the Cartadanian "obrigado" and "duplo" for "thanks" and "double". (Ex. Bis meu pretio para mais detalhes instead of Duplo meu horário para mais detalhes. for "Double my hourly rate for details" in standardised Cartadanian.)
- Mendêsano – Spoken in the areas of Alexandria and Verona around Alahuela, but not within the city itself.
- Costenho – Spoken in the Palm Coast region of Verona. It is sometimes considered a sub-dialect of the Attalense dialect spoken in the rest of Verona, as speakers inside the metro area may be easily recognizable more by their slang than the way the phonology of their speech, which is closer to the standard Cartadanian in the media than other variants. It is known especially for several distinctive traits new to Cartadanian when compared to the other dialects.
- Attalense – Spoken in the bulk of Verona and the Cagliasi region of Tanoa. It has a very characteristic syllable-timed rhythm, which it shares with the Costenho accent, and the greatest tendency to pronounce unstressed vowels as open-mid [ɛ] and [ɔ].
- Alahuense – Spoken in Alahuela, it is the most textbook-accurate dialect and is often considered "proper" Cartadanian, despite the Attalense dialect being closer to the original language.
- Venezana – Spoken in western Victoria, it is the dialect most typically associated with the state.
- Sonorense – Spoken in the eastern regions of Victoria, especially adjacent to Alexandria and the northern coastal areas. Corresponds to the former-Sonora region of the state.
- Nitrosa – Spoken in northern Santiago, including Carina, and the equatorial forests that stretch into southern Alexandria and southwestern Victoria. It is spoken in both Newport and Corunha.
- Fluminense – Spoken in southern Santiago, the Santiago Pantanal, and Trentino. It is a very rural-developed dialect, and as a result of its striking remarkable differences in comparison to other Cartadanian dialects in phonology, prosody and grammar, often stigmatized as being strongly associated with a substandard variant.
- Taliana or Tanoense – Spoken in Tanoa (except Cagliasi), eastern Catania, Tanoa Sul, and the panhandle of Guanilu. It is further broken into two varieties, most notably the northern Vermelense sub-dialect of Tanoa and the southern variety, commonly referred to as the Magnolia dialect.
- Etraciana – the second-most geographically wide spread dialect, this variety is spoken in western Catania, Guanilu (except the panhandle), southeastern Vitrea, Calaxara, Navarra, and Lipora. It is further divided into three sub-dialects, most notably Piemonte spoken in Catania, Vale spoken in Guanilu and southeastern Vitrea, and Baía Sul spoken in Calaxara, Navarra, and Lipora. This dialect is heavily influenced by Pelaxian and has a lot of loanwords from the language. Etracianas outside of the Piemonte area also use "tu" as opposed to "você" as in the rest of Cartadania.
- Satheriana – most commonly associate with the Cartadanian desert forest region, this dialect is spoken in Loumara, Montecarlo, and the majority of Vitrea, though Montecarlo is unique in that there is a large population of Charentais individuals in the state.
- Mediano – Spoken in Lombardia, Toscana, Ferara, Siena, and Santa Domenica, this dialect is divided into three groups: Iordâna, aka the Lombardia dialect; Ursense, spoken in Toscana and Ferara; Sulista, spoken in Siena and Santa Domenica. Santa Domenica is also particularly influenced by Pelaxian as Maribel Island is shared with Pelaxia. Iordâna is most characterised by its realization of most /ʎ/ as [j]: alho [ˈaʎu] ("garlic") becomes homophonous with aio [ˈaju] ("hired tutor").
- Taínea – The most geographically widespread and one of the most-widely spoken of the Cartadanian dialects, with approximately 40 million natives, this variety is spoken in Aveiro, Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Santarém. Porta Bianca is sometimes included in this variety due to similarities, but is most often split from the region due to its unique linguistic situation.
- Portense – Spoken in Porta Bianca, this dialect is influenced by Burgoignesc, similar to the Charentano dialect, but also has a heavy influence of Pelaxian and indigenous Taínean speech and lexicon. Porta Biancans notably speak much slower than the rest of Cartadania and elongate some vowels. They are also cited as speaking much softer than other dialects.
- Lotoense – Spoken in Lotoa, this variety is most similar to the Aleo and Attalense dialects with very strong Polynesian influences on the language. Additionally, Lotoan's co-official status alongside Cartadanian has resulted in admixture of the two languages such that Lotoense is quite distinct from the rest of the dialects, both linguistically and geographically.
- Solemiana – Spoken in Solemia, this variety is more closely related to the Cartadanian dialects of Ceylonia than metropolitan Cartadania. Still, phonetically, the dialect is similar to the Mendêsano dialect, as most of its settlers came from that region.
Characterization and peculiarities
Influence on other languages