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United Angle States
Motto: E pluribus unum
(Out of many, one)
Location of Anglei (green) in the Levantine Union (light green) and Levantia (gray)
and largest city
|Official languages||Julian Ænglish|
|House of States|
|National Assembly of the United Angle States|
• Concordat of Donnebourg
|18 June 1884|
• Constitution of the United Angle States
|7 April 1890|
• 2020 estimate
• Per capita
The United Angle States, also called Anglei, is a country in Levantia, located north of the Ionian Mountains and south of the Vandarch. It is a member of the Levantine Union. Ænglish people permanently settled the territory of modern Anglei during the 7th century, establishing a border march under the Holy Levantine Empire. The March, later elevated to the Kingdom of Angla, enjoyed a place of prominence in central Levantia during the 13th through 15th centuries, but entered a period of instability and religious upheaval during The Anarchy along with the establishment of Yonderre. Becoming one of the first Protestant states following the Protestant Reformation, Angla's mounting tensions with the Emperor of the Levantines lead to the Nordmontaine War, when the Kingdom of Angla was partitioned into its constituent duchies and divided into the Imperial Kingdom of Urcea and Kingdom of Dericania. Following the war and subsequent Great Confessional War, Anglei was depopulated as many Protestant Ænglish people were deported abroad by the end of the 1500s while war-induced famine further reduced the population. The divided country spent much of the next three centuries rebuilding and growing, only surpassing its pre-war population in 1780. The five independent duchies which previously made up the core region of Angla retained its strong Ænglish identity and were eventually the home of Ænglish nationalism in the 19th century. The unification of the duchies were permitted by the Holy Levantine Empire in part due to rising sentiments of Burgophobia, as many Derian people and Ænglish people alike believed a potential invasion of the duchies by Yonderre was imminent. The five duchies became the United Angle States in 1884 by the Concordat of Donnebourg, which was affirmed by the Imperial Diet. The same year, Anglei became a free state within the Holy Levantine Empire. Anglei later joined the Levantine Union after the Second Great War.
Over the course of its history, the territory today known as Anglei was given various official and unofficial names including Angla, Ænglaland, Ænglia, and Ænglasmarch/Ænglishmarch, the origin of the modern state of Ænglasmarch in Urcea. All of these names were used in official titles during the Kingdom period, with the simplified Angla being the most common. For historiographical purposes, "Ænglishmarch" became the common term to refer to the march period and "Angla" to refer to the Kingdom period, but these historical conventions largely began in the mid-20th century. The term Anglei, the Burgoignesc term for the area, entered common use following the partition of the unified Ænglish state in the Nordmontaine War. The term, originating in neighboring Yonderre, became the conventional name for the area due to both local acceptance as well as common map appellation by the mid-1700s. Although the official name of the country is the "United Angle States", in part not to indicate greater territorial claims to Ænglish irredenta, the term "Anglei" remains the common shorthand name of the country and has been increasingly used in official correspondence since the end of the Second Great War.
During the medieval period, the Kingdom took on the nickname the "White Kingdom". This nickname originated from traveling Gothic people entering the Kingdom due to the polished limestone exterior of the Anglasweorc, which would be visible from some distance and also very memorable. The "White Kingdom" is sometimes used in both a poetic or ironic sense to refer to modern Anglei.
Anglei occupies a roughly "L"-shaped position between Urcea, Yonderre, and Hollona and Diorisia and has two primary sections, one of which running approximately north to south between Yonderre and the Vandarch Republic and one of which running east to west between Urcea and Yonderre. The predominant geographical feature of the country is Lake Roseney, which bisects northern and western Anglei and historically served as a major commercial center as well as the southern terminus of the Anglasweorc. The nation's borders are primarily riverine and is bounded by the Carolina-Grand Canal and its associated rivers to the west.
Establishment and migration
The permanent settlement of the region by the ancestors of the Ænglish people occurred in the late 7th century, although Ænglish people had alternatively raided and settled portions of Great Levantia since at least the 4th century. Recognizably Ænglish principalities formed and exerted pressure on the northmost members of the Latin League, with settling Ænglish warlords and tribes beginning to settle in previously Latinic cities, ruling over Latinics and intermarrying with them. The oncoming Ænglish people also extensively feuded with the Garán people of what would later become Carolina. The area later became loosely part of the Holy Levantine Empire under Conchobar I, Emperor of the Levantines and then part of the Eastern and Western Kingdoms of the Levantines beginning in 917. Many Ænglish tribes were settled by the Western Kingdom of the Levantines in 943 in the heartlands of modern Anglei, forming the nucleus of the Ænglish as a settled peoples. The later fall of the Western Kingdom lead to consistent Gothic incursions into the newly reformed Holy Levantine Empire beginning in 965; the non-Christianized Goths indiscriminately targeted border populations of the Empire, leading to decades of fighting between the Ænglish and Goths.
In 1042, Emperor Leo II issued a Golden Bull reorganizing what would later become Anglei into the Ænglish March in order to provide a firmer border defense for the Levantine Empire. The newly created March encompassed all lands settled by Ænglish people in addition to all other western border territories not part of Carolina. Duke of Holchester Edmund Æthelsbert, previously a vassal of the Emperor under the Kingdom of Dericania, was elevated to Margrave of the Ænglish. Margrave Edmund I would become a semi-mythic figure responsible for the full transition from nomadic conquest to a proud, settled people, although most historians suggest that the Ænglish were largely in place before the establishment of the March. Regardless, Margrave Edmund I established a number of important alliances and established the Margraviate as a prestigious member of the Empire.
Edmund I's grandson, Margrave Cuthbert I, began work on a series of fortifications on the border with Gothica that would eventually become known as the Anglasweorc in 1121. The initial Anglasweorc included watchtowers along the March's river borders as well as a series of earthworks along land borders and a sparse variety of fortifications and the antecedents of castles. The Anglasweorc would continually be expanded and improved over the next three centuries and would become Anglei's most iconic structure.
By the end of the 12th century, the Anglasweorc had been expanded into a series of castles and adaptations of old Great Levantine border defenses. The strength of the Anglasweorc allowed the March to begin charging large tolls to Gothic traders seeking to do business within the Holy Levantine Empire, and also eventually allowed the Ænglish to begin exacting tribute from neighboring Gothic tribes and enforcing peaceful movement of peoples along the border. The influx of tolls and tribute - along with the end of the raiding threat - lead to the March becoming prosperous and prestigious, with the Margrave's court becoming a center of art, fashion, and science. Accordingly, 1200 is traditionally established as the beginning of the "Ænglish golden age".
During the Marcher period, the Ænglish realm underwent significant legal turmoil as it changed jurisdiction within the Holy Levantine Empire several times. Upon its creation, it was intended for the March to be a part of the Southern Kingdom of the Levantines, creating a strong neutral counterbalance there to the rising Julian realm. Despite this intention, historians note that Margrave Edmund still mostly functioned as a Dericanian vassal of the Emperor and the realm initially functioned using the laws of that Kingdom. After Edmund's death and for the remaining part of the 11th century, the Margraves of the Ænglish would execute their responsibilities as vassals in the Southern Kingdom. As the Southern Kingdom was dissolved and reforged into the Imperial Kingdom of Urcea after the Golden Bull of 1098, the Ænglish realm became part of the Kingdom of Culfra as part of an overall effort to create a loyal realm there in the wake of Culfra's recent uprising. Although nominally connected to the rest of the Kingdom by Hollona's northern border, the Ænglish were geographically and culturally remote from the remainder of the Kingdom. In 1165, in recognition of this fact, the Ænglish became part of the Kingdom of Dericania but were given Imperial immediacy, laying the groundwork for its later elevation to Royal dignity.
In 1278, the power and prestige of the expanded March was such that the Emperor of the Levantines elevated the Margrave of the Ænglish to royal dignity, creating the Kingdom of Angla, also sometimes referred to as "Anglia", "Ænglia", or "Ænglaland" and typically referred to internally as the "Kingdom of the Ænglish". Wilfred I was crowned as first King of the Ænglish that year. During this period, the Anglasweorc was continually improved upon in multiple phases. The wealth of the Ænglish allowed them to focus more on the internal politics of the Holy Levantine Empire and expand further south and east.
In 1464, the Conquest of Joanusterra was largely complete, creating the predecessor of modern Yonderre. The creation of this crusader state ended more than five centuries of the Ænglish serving as the western protectors of Christendom and the Holy Levantine Empire and significantly disrupted the fortunes of the Ænglish as the flow of tribute and toll revenue dried up. The considerable expense of maintaining the Anglasweorc, previously offset by Gothic revenue, lead to its gradual abandonment beginning in 1480 and eventual ruin. The major disruption to Ænglish politics and society exacerbated the growth of religious upheaval within the Kingdom and brought an end to the "Ænglish golden age".
Religious upheaval and disagreement dominated Angla throughout much of the 15th and 16th centuries within the greater context of The Anarchy. The Kingdom was the site of a major civil war between orthodox Catholics and utraquists from the 1460s onward. The lack of religious cohesion lead to the rise of other Catholic heresies throughout the Kingdom, creating an environment of considerable skepticism towards Catholic orthodoxy. Many novel Christian sects rose and were subsequently destroyed in the 1470s and 1480s. Although the Utraquist War ended in 1488, the religious upheaval allowed proto-Protestants and, later, early Protestant reformers to make large converts among the Ænglish population. Consequently, the Kingdom was among the first realms to convert to Protestantism, as King Godwin II embraced it in 1523. By 1530, most modern scholars estimate a full sixty percent of Ænglish within the Kingdom were Protestant, though inter-Protestant disputes soon continued the century of religious disagreements and occasional violence that plagued the Kingdom.
The Ænglish Church
From the conversion of King Godwin II in 1623 to the end of the Ænglish Kingdom in the 1640s, an increasing amount of Royal attention and political capital were spent on reforming the Church in the realm and spreading it among the populace. The Ænglish Church was formally established in 1623 as King Godwin II made a proclamation announcing the authority of the King over the Catholic Church in his country and a renunciation of Urceopolitan authority, followed by a decree establishing the Ænglish Church generally while proclaiming a Statute in Restraint of Appeals prohibiting the clergy from appealing to the Pope in religious matters. A It was formed out of the extant clergy and Catholic Church apparatus within the country, with a majority - but not all - of the clergy deciding to follow the King into the state church.
King Godwin II set to work reforming the Ænglish Church after its independence from Urceopolis was established. He replaced the Archbishop of Holchester, the highest ranking clergyman in the country, with a well known Protestant theologian named Eadwacer Fletcher. Working with Fletcher, Godwin issued sweeping religious proclamations between 1524 and 1528. The liturgy was changed from employing Latin to Ænglish with a liturgical commission established to replace Catholic liturgy, the doctrine of sola fide was implemented, Church authority was invested in convocations approved by the Ænglish King, and a number of Catholic doctrines including purgatory and transubstantiation were condemned. Several elements of Catholicism were retained, including liturgical vestments, holy days, veneration of the Saints, and the use of icons, though with veneration of these prohibited. Three sacraments were explicitly upheld - Communion, Baptism, and Penance - while the other four remained open questions. Godwin also seized the monasteries and abolished clerical celibacy. These acts, collectively known as the Acts of Godwin, were the fundamental basis of Ænglish Church doctrine and remained a key part of the beliefs of its successors until supplanted by more comprehensive works.
King Godwin's commission, which continued following his death in 1630, issued the Book of Common Prayer in 1534, and it would remain in use until the destruction of the Ænglish Church a decade later. The Book of Common Prayer would go on to be used by other successor denominations, such as the Chantry of Alstin and Ænglish Old Believers.
End of the Ænglish realm
The threat posed to the unity of the Holy Levantine Empire by a Protestant Kingdom in the north - along with other concerns within the political context of the Anarchy - lead to the Emperor Conchobar III declaring King Godwin III an outlaw in 1543 and invading the country, beginning the Nordmontaine War. Ænglish forces fought bitterly throughout the conflict but were ultimately undermined by domestic Catholic rebels, with local nobility forming rebel armies with aligned with the Imperial Army during the war. Ænglish forces employed scorched earth tactics that successfully delayed the conclusion of the war for more than a decade but also caused a mass humanitarian crisis as famine soon covered the land. After 11 years of fighting, Holchester was sacked and King Godwin III was executed by the Emperor. Many of the Protestant nobles relocated to the castles of the Anglasweorc in an attempt to hold out, but the Imperial Army demolished most of the castles by the largest grouping of artillery in Levantine history to that point. The Kingdom was subsequently partitioned by the Emperor among five local Catholic nobles who would rule the former core populated area of the Kingdom. The Duchy of Holchester was given to Aedanicus de Weluta, a Catholic royal whose family had been deposed from Urcea, while the eastern portions of the Kingdom were incorporated within the Kingdom of Dericania, inlcuding the Duchy of Hollona, which was given to the Elector of Diorisia. The total destruction of the Kingdom lead to a general uprising among the Protestant Union, beginning the Great Confessional War. Anglei was totally depopulated as a result of the two wars, with famine and bloodshed in the Nordmontaine War followed by continued wartime devestation in the Great Confessional War. Following the Holy League's victory in the conflict, the Dragonnades were heavily prosecuted in the country, creating a Catholic majority at a heavy price as many were forced to convert or deported. The deportations of large numbers of Ænglish people - both as part of the religious efforts as well as by politically motivated deportations in conquered lands - created a stock of potential colonists for Levantine nations such as Ardmore in relatively recently discovered Crona. These Ænglish people would be the basis of nations abroad like Arcerion and Alstin and their settlement abroad created the theory of the Ardmori bargain, which is a widely-held conspiracy theory among Ænglish people.
Divided states period
The divided Angle duchies underwent a major population boom in the late 18th century, and by the 1780s the population of the area had recovered to its pre-Nordmontaine War levels. Long subject of Ænglophobia, the Angle duchies also underwent an increase of political relevance during the late 18th and 19th centuries. They collaborated closely with Urcea on the construction of the Carolina-Grand Canal, which economically rejuvenated the area, especially around Lake Roseney, which became a main thoroughfare for the Canal. As a result of the Canal, the Lake area became the most densely populated in Anglei as early industrial cities were established and grew on its shores.
Unification and modern period
The Constitution also provided for a limited framework of freedom of religion for Old Believers, representing the first legal concession to Ænglish Protestants since the destruction of the Ænglish Church in 1545. The Constitution established the Catholic Church as the state religion of Anglei, but provided that all "non-juring groups...are afforded the right, subject to the regulation of the state, for free worship according to their own conscience". The "regulation of the state" allowed for limitations to be placed on Old Believers. From 1890 until the establishment of the Collegiate Fraternal Church in 1974, Old Believers were limited to twenty five congregations across the country, and all constructions or alterations of worship structures were required to have state approval. Only one bishopric - the Bishop of Stretton - was authorized to be created. As a holdover from the Treaty of Lariana, a public official was required to be in attendance for every worship service, although by the 1920s this regulation was effectively bypassed by most local governments, who would retain an Old Believer nominally on the books who would attend their regular worship services on behalf of the state. Regardless of the limitations, the legalization had the intended effect, bringing many Old Believers back to Anglei from Dericania or abroad and also creating legal citizens of many former outcasts and underground Protestants.
The establishment of a unified nation encouraged many nation-building and cultural revival projects, such as the attempted creation of Blairian Ænglish as a replacement for the commonly used Julian Ænglish.
The United Angle States inaugurated significant governmental reforms in 1914 in the wake of popular unrest stemming from the Great Depression. Since the Concordat of Donnebourg, the five dukes which had ruled the predecessors of Anglei continued to rule within the new federal union under the headship of the Princes, who concurrently held the Duchy of Stretton. The personal agendas of the dukes had led to significant domestic disagreement in the first decade of the 20th century, leading to their personal unpopularity and the rise of republicanism within the country. Accordingly, the government adopted the so-called "Fusion Amendment", a measure which amended the Constitution to remove the hereditary dukes of each state, including the Prince, who would retain his position as Prince of the United Angle States but lose his role as Duke of Stretton. The Fusion Amendment, so called because it instituted republican institutions within a constitutional monarchical framework, also provided for the election of the Prince upon the death of the reigning ruler. The ruling Prince and House of Porter consented to the changes, but the four remaining dukes did not. For a time, it appeared civil war was the likely end result. However, the reigning Prince called forth the Army and held a major demonstration in Stretton, wherein they reaffirmed their loyalty to the Prince and State. Politically outflanked, the dukes left the country for exile in Faneria. The Fusion Amendment was subsequently ratified by all five states, inaugurating the main outlines of the modern constitution of Anglei.
Anglei declared its neutrality in the Second Fratricide, declaring it a "Derian internal matter", and remained neutral with the conflict's escalation into the Second Great War. Despite its neutrality, the country was invaded by the Urcean Royal and Imperial Army on April 14th and capitulated on April 17th. The country remained occupied until the Treaty of Corcra ended the Levantine theater of the war. Throughout the occupation, the country's neutral status was maintained and occupying forces were primarily concerned with ensuring military and supply transit through the country as well as the open status of the Carolina-Grand Canal. Although the occupation was unpopular, no significant resistance efforts began during the war and the withdrawal of Urcean forces proceeded largely without incident.
The occupation inaugurated a short period of diplomatic isolation during the Second Great War, but at the end of the conflict the country reestablished relations with its Levantine neighbors. It was a founding member of the Levantine Union. Despite its Levantine Union membership, Anglei remained largely neutral during the Occidental Cold War. It took part in the international coalition against Varshan during the Final War of the Deluge, contributing forces to both the Quetzenkel front, Cetsencalia front and the Ehemoan front following the Atomic bombing of Zakan Rot. On the Quetzenkel front, Anglei launched the controversial and ultimately disastrous Cobalt campaign, the worst military defeat by an Ænglish state since the Nordmontaine War. The enormous loss of life during the campaign lead to a national identity crisis and inaugurated a period of military reform and increased outward facing identity, as many Ænglish interpreted the loss as being attributable to an outdated military and political mindset. After the end of the war, Anglei joined the Global Defense Corollary of the Levantine Union.
Government and politics
Prince of the United Angle States
The Prince of the United Angle States serves as the constitutional monarch and head of state of Anglei. The Prince's control over the military and apparatus of state is nominal, but retains an important role within the legislature. The Prince is responsible for choosing the party which will form a government and is responsible for assembling a governing majority within the Assembly.
The Prince of the United Angle States is a lifetime position like most other monarchies, but unlike many Levantine monarchies it is an elective monarchy. Upon the death of the Prince, ten thousand citizens are chosen at random to serve in a body called the "Principal Electorate". These citizens then elect from their number 300 members who serve as the "Council for Succession and the State of the Union", who are responsible for deliberating and choosing the next Prince. There are no limitations on who may serve as Prince (or Princess) other than being an individual who is a baptized member in good standing of the Catholic Church and is at least age 25. In practice, the House of Porter has ruled Anglei since its inception, though the Council has not always chosen along the line of direct primogeniture. This system of succession has sometimes been referred to as "electoral sortition".
The legislature of Anglei, collectively referred to as the "National Witan", consists of two houses - the House of States, and the National Assembly of the United Angle States. The House of States represents the five states of Anglei with equal representation, with each state having seven elected representatives in the House of States. The House of States serves as a traditional upper house within a parliamentary-style democracy, and accordingly it has a limited legislative role, usually reserved to amending legislation sent to it by the National Assembly for constitutional issues. It retains a degree of authority with respect to foreign affairs, as it has the power to approve or disapprove all treaties entered into by Anglei.
The National Assembly, the lower house of the legislature, is the primary legislative body within the National Witan, and control of a majority of the Assembly is necessary to form a government.
Anglei is divided into five states which were originally the five constituent integral duchies of the United Angle States upon its creation. These states were ruled by their original hereditary dukes prior to 1914, but since have been led by elected executive officers known as Governors, fashioned after the Urcean style of governance.
Freedom fries are a popular food item which originated in Anglei and is widely consumed there.
The primary language of Anglei is Julian Ænglish.
Multiple attempts to "de-Urceanize" the Ænglish language have been attempted, including Blairian Ænglish which was a popular, though primarily academic, concept around the time of the Concordat of Donnebourg. It has virtually no presence in Anglei today, though small "Blairian Societies" exist throughout the country.
Army of the UAS
The Army of the United Angle States is the land force and primary military branch of the Armed Forced of the United Angle States.
United Air Force
Despite being entirely landlocked, Anglei maintains a small naval force known as the Navy of the United Angle States which is completely integrated within the Vandarch Sea Guard.